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2 forms of Democratic Peace
- Democracies are more powerful, thus war less often
- Democracies tend not to go to to war with other democracies
3 Philosophical approaches which the foundations can be traced to?
- Liberal pacifism
- Liberal imperialism
- Liberal internationalism
What is liberal pacifism?
- Joseph Schumpter
- Simplest form based on individual freedom, equality, private property, etc.
- No democracy would want to risk these by going to a war with another nation
3 flaws of liberal pacifism
- Primarily concerned with economics
- Homogenized actors (doesn't exist bc actors exist with only economic interests in mind)
- Countries no democratic/capitalist (no d.p. bc of economics)
What is liberal Imperialism?
- Used by Machiavelli
- Democracies should actually be aggressive
- Capitalism and democracy are imperialistic
- not all democracies have acted either aggressive or imperialistic
What is liberal internationalism created by?
- Focuses on Kant
- 1) Ethical duty to peace
- 2) Institutions common to all democracies
- 3) Legitimate rights to all citizens and replicated to IR and international law
- 4) "cosmopolitian law" (Material incentive/individual right for free trade and open markets)
Why Liberal internationalism?
- the view of the citizen
- Schumpter concerned only with economics
- Machiavelli concerned only with power
- Kant possees the other two but is "capable of moral equality"
How does democratic perform as a theory?
(Moaz&Russett) set to 2 models, normative(idea democratic norms and procedures drive d.p.) and structural(not norms and procedures but the institutions drive d.p.)
What about Layne and d.p.?
also looks at 2 models, public opinion/ institutional model and normative model
Why should liberalists love d.p.?
Because it leads to increased cooperation
3 variables( from the Layne article in the normative model works)
- Public opinion should be strongly pacifist
- if indeed there is an ethical duty to peace, policy makers should not be making threats to other democracies
Other criticisms of Democratic Peace?
- (govt) Type vs. Degree
- Domestic violence (needs to be solved if d.p. is to work in the long run)
- problems with "well known desires"
- policy justification problem
Should we use this as a guide for policy and does Democratic peace work?
Yes, but when expanded it doesn't work bc it doesn't include cultural difference like religions boundaries. Also, people can manipulate numbers to say anything you want them to say.
Rational Actor Model?
- Maximization of preferences
- Reduces it to one simple question: Which choice of action best maximizes national goals and minimizes costs?
- can fit with either realism or liberalism?
- Often will refer to these as "logic" games or scenarios
- or we look to develop policies that try to force rationality such as deterrence
- however, it is also realized that no one is perfect
Who said this: "common flaw of the standard rationalist arguments is that they fail to address or to explain adequately what presents leaders from reaching ex-ante(pre-war) bargains that would avoid the costs and risks of fighting."
5 arguments on how wars occur from Fearon's article
- standard utility calculations(higher costs than benefits)
- rational preventive war(to avoid big war, have sm. little wars)
- rational miscalculations based on information
- rational miscalculation or disagreement over power (seemed at the time one has an advantage & went to war)
What is the real question posed by Fearon?
that "leaders have incentives to share...private information, which could have the effect of revealing peaceful settlements that lie within the bargaining range. So, to explain how war could occur...we need to explain what would prevent them from sharing such private information."
Problem with Fearon's 5 arguments on how wars occur?
First 3 do not address the bargain questions while the latter do but don't explain why these occur.
What explains the problems with Fearon's argument?
- misrepresentation (can lead to miscalculations on the other side of false info)
- committment problems (incentive to committing to the actual diplomatic problem)
- issue indivisibility (hard to bargain over thins that are no indivisible)
What do these arguments and its flaws(from Fearson's article) all mean for rationality? and is it possible?
No, the outcome is always possible.
Also, How might we solve rationality problems?
possibly find ways to become more rational through politics or games
What is deterrence theory?
- Policy used to dissuade an opponent from doing something he has not yet started to do.
- threat based policy; that places the burden on the target
- goal raised the costs of taking action past benefits
- rests on rationality
- target warned in advance..thus, escalation in their own hands
- trying to maintain status quo
- Success is hard to measure(if they don't act they can deny that they ever were. Therefore, it can only be measured when deterrence fails)
- Used in this case is in combination with defense
- Force is applied to reduce "the enemy's capability to damage or deprive us; the defense value of military forces is their effect in mitigating the adverse consequences for us of possible enemy moves."
- Destroys resources and capacity to impose costs
- motivations are the same and often reinforce deterrence
- reason why we have "extended deterrence" in our case
What is extended deterrence?
state A making a threat to state B because of/for state C
When using deterrence, what is normally used?
modeling or game theory
What is Game Theory?
- Multiple types of games(most common type is with matrices)
- Key is independence
- Developed based on logic & mathematics(didn't start in poli sci)
- useful in a wide range of scenarios
- utilizes a game matrix or decision tree
What are the fundamental assumptions on which game theory is based on?
- Mankind is rational
- utility of payoff can be calculated and quantified
What is the 2 fold purpose of game theory?
Normative & Empirical
What are the several varieties of game theory?
- prisoner's dilemma(most utilized of game theory)
In game theory, units involved are?
CHOICES are made that lead to specific...?
OUTCOMES(one selected outcome, not multiple outcomes)
Players are assumed to evaluate(subjectively) the...?
What are utility maximizers?
INSTRUMENTAL RATIONAL PLAYERS
What do deterrence models typically utilize?
What is the rationality of classical deterrence vs perfect deterrence?
- Both assume rationality, but one more than the other.
- Perfect det. always act rational while classical det. always attempts to act rational
In Det. Modeling, what is outcome as conflict?
Conflict is worse possible outcome in C.D. while conflict is the rational outcome in P.D.
In Det. Modeling, what is the importance of threat credibility and capability?
Capability is a necessary condition for P.D and credible becomes irrelevant. Capable is when you are able to follow through with the threat while credible is when the threat is actually carried out.
Why was Det. Modeling flawed from the start?
Threats need to be high/extreme because if they have nothing to lose, it will be an all out conflict anyways; other process is just a slow process to that point.
Conclusions of Det. Modeling?
- What rationality?
- Can policies or procedure make us more rational?
- Maybe, we can model ourselves there?
- Still, useful as behavior more times than not is same type of rational behavior...just not perfect rationality, but bounded rationality.
Does perfect rationality exist?
- no, not possible. However, we can become more rational.
- Perfect rationality=pure rationality
What is bounded rationality?
Making the most rational decision off the information you have.
Background information of Constructivism
- Developed and flourished from one event of realism failed to account from.
- Also Liberalism's failure to deal with rate and speed of change in the system.
- Third most significant approach to IR
What are the 6 assumptions of Constructivism?
- 1. Ideas, Beliefs, and identities of individuals are the key understanding of IR
- 2. these are "constructed"(based on intersubjective meanings)
- 3. Greater emphasis on social factors than on material factors
- 4. Agent vs Structure debate
- 5. Conflict or cooperation can bother occur...no such thing as immutable structure
- 6. Importance of Change
What is the real question/drawback of Constructivism?
Whether this is a theoretical paradigm or analytical tool
What kind of system(liberal, realist, etc) exists today?
- State remains the primary actor
- Realist in nature
- doesn't have to be that way
Process-focused...the importance of "Social Act"?
- Social act is signaling, interpreting, and responding
- Threats are constructed(not natural)
- Prospect for change
Alter and Ego?
- physical qualities
- intentions of their actions
- possibilities for misperception/misunderstanding
Applied Constructivism: Hoffman used an example of social constructivism and examined a "norm" or ideal "life cycle", which occurs in what 3 stages?
- 1. Emergence: "norm entrepreneurs"(advocates for the understanding of a norm)
- 2. Cascade
- 3. Internalization: conformance no longer a question(acceptance of this norm)
- Post-positivist side...relational process rather than the norms
- Concerned with legitimization rather than "internalization" or "social learning"
What are the 3 ways to do constructivist research as it applies to the agent structure problem?
- Bracketing (agent and structure working together)
- Relationally, the case is this one
What are the starting points of Post Modernism and Critical theory?
- As a primary purpose is to call attention to what we take for granted
- Also, makes us comfortable bc it questions out "truths"
- part of the "third debate"
- "the very core of what constitutes the international relations field and requires its thorough and complete reconstruction:
- Impossible to know the "true social reality"
Similarity of Postmodernism/Critical Theory?
- Not a theory in a traditional sense(ie positivist)
- Disjunctures of Enlightenment modernity
- No one "true" meaning of a text
- Reflects linguistic structures or systems of discursive practice and knowledge production
"Meaning"is assigned through oppositional arrangement
- Elevate some over others
- good vs bad
- take for example "Latin America"
Thus, what all postmodern/critical theorists are concerned with is the construction and subjugation of humankind...meaning?
We have imposed meaning to everything.
More on Postmodernism/Critical Theory
- Reveal value structures to oppose them
- They unpack or pull apart meanings embedded or assumed in texts
- Different than constructivism bc they construct reality
- Postmodernism/Critical theory deconstruct, and can't reconstruct bc it would be value laden
What are the differences between postmodernism and critical theory?
- 1. Level of distrust
- 2. Possibility of a better meta-narrative
- 3. Purpose of analysis
Level of distrust?
- postmodernism: to reveal power and subjugation, but bound by the "postmodern condition"
- Critical theorists: seek "human emancipation"
Possibility of a better meta-narrative?
Postmodernists can't replace Meta-narrative(concept, identity, etc) while critical theorists can.
Purpose of analysis?
- PM unpacking the meta-narrative is the purpose
- CT fundamental change is possible
Foundations of Feminism
- Entered the discipline in the late 80s, early 90s
- Part of the "third debate"
- "debating IR's way of knowing what we know"
- Thus, the foundations of positivist, rationalist, and materialist theories
- Many Share a postpositivist approach, but we don't have to
How will we be able to fully understand IR in terms of Feminism?
By introducing gender
What does conventional IR focus on?
generalizable, nationalist explanations
What do feminist theories focus on?
Social relations..esp. particularly gender
Where do they tend to begin at?
a micro rather than the macro level(when individual lives affect and are affected by; particularly marginalized groups)
Focus on Gender?
- Social and cultural distinctions(construct gender roles, not physical anatomy)
- Gender roles: jobs, tasks, activities that are traditionally associated with either men or women as a group
What are the 2 distinct generations of IR feminist Literature?
1st and 2nd generation
Bringing to light and critiquing gendered foundations
- New research agendas, that incorporate feminist ideas
- Are specific and more empirical
Regardless of which generation, what does each share an interest in?
"gender equality" or "gender emancipation"(freeing IR from a gender perspective)
But what does that mean?
means vary, path to get there varies as well, which also leads to varying typologies
What does this call attention to?
the subordinate position in global politics
How is equality achieved?
By removing legal and other obstacles
What is also used as an explanatory variable?
gender(differences in gender explain outcomes)
Capriolo and Boyer: Quantitative look at what?
domestic gender equality and the use of force
What do most post positivist feminists have a problem with?
this stand and quant. data
However, this masks what?
What does Critical Feminism explore?
ideational and material manifestations of gendered identities and power
What is the critical Feminism's approach?
Emancipatory approach with focus on change
More on critical feminism?
- Examines 3 forces at 3 levels
- Ideas are important in legitimating but are the product of human agents so...
- change is always possible
Critical Feminism: what does Whitworth suggest?
"gender is constituted" (BTW men and women)
What does constructivist feminism focus on?
Focuses on the way ideas about gender influence global politics as well as the ways gender politics shape ideas about gender
Prugl on Constructivist feminism?
gender as an institution codifies power at every level
linguistically; based on rules about how states interact with each other and their citizen
What does constructivist feminism study?
studies the process where ideas about gender influences politics
What is poststructuralist feminism concerned about?
- Concerned with the relationship between knowledge and power
- In particular, the way we dichotomize linguistic constructions
What does poststructuralist feminism believe?
believes that these have real world consequences
What does poststructuralist feminism denote?
denotes inferiority among other things; also looks to deconstruct these hierarchies
What is one of the smallest sections of feminism?
Post colonial Feminism
Colonial feminists are also what?
What is a particular concern of Colonial feminists?
Particular concern of colonial relations of domination and subordination(critique of feminism itself, western focused perspective)
What is the focus of Colonial feminists?
Focuses on the way western feminists have constructed knowledge about non-westerm women
What do Colonial feminists seek?
- They seek to redress this with cultural contest
- No universalism exists because knowledge was based on a western, privileged women
Feminism: Redefining security?
- Define in multidimensional and multilevel terms
- extend what is a security threat
- Focuses on individual or community security rather than the state
- "those at the margins"
Feminism: Challenging the myth of protection?
Legitimacy of war has always been that men fight to protect those who are "vulnerable"
Statistics: Women and children constitute the majority of casualties?
- 10% (1990); 90% (1999); 75% of refugees (1999)
- wars make it harder on women to fulfill their responsibilities
Feminism sees militaries not as defense but as?
as threats to individuals as well as introduced alternative violence
Feminism: Economic Insecurity?
- Disproportionately at the bottom
- market conditions alone cannot explain this
- gender roles partially to blame
Tickner's We need to understand and engage?
Feminist and IR scholars are drawing on very different realities and using different epistemologies when they engage in theorizing about IR
Tickner: What are the 3 primary misunderstandings from most sections of IR theory?
- 1. meaning of gender
- 2. different realities or ontologies that feminists and non-feminists
- 3. the epistemological divides
Tickner: What is the ultimate conclusion?
While feminist perspectives do not claim to tell us everything we need to know about the behavior of states or the workings of the global economy, they are telling us things that have too often remained invisible?
How are these feminism cases different from the other cases we have studied?
- Gender focused
- presented in personal narratives(far more engaged)
- allowed for subjectivity
Is there value in Feminism?
Yes, adds more than it detracts. Feminism approach adds a personal connection.
Which type of feminism did you get more out of?
Should have gotten more out of critical feminism
"men at work" vs "women at work" vs "gender at work"...differences?
Liberal feminism is problematic bc it doesn't recognize token appearances(exception, not the rule)(bc of the roles they play)
Father of English school?
History of the English School?
- British committee on the theory of International Politics
- Seen as occupying the middle ground
- Synthesis of different theories and concepts
History of English School: Why then does it make sense to talk of it as a distinct tradition of inquiry?
- Personal ties matter
- the protagonists themselves(advocates for being distinct, able to isolate yourself from other existing theories)
- Looks to move beyond the norm of realism vs idealism
When did the English School begin?
began in 1959; first to alternative to realism and Idealism
What are the 3 phases of English School?
- Discussions around the "founding issues"
- Research programs
- Emergence of Regional and International Society
English School: in the 1980s it died out, only to make a comeback...why?
One of the primary things it did was question the way we got knowledge and introduced us to a new approach
English School as a "classical approach"
approach to theorizing that derives from philosophy, history, and law, and that is characterized by explicit reliance upon the exercise of judgement
English School "classical approach": What came out of this 4pt guide?
- 1. Subject matter of IR(is not the state; is global political system)
- 2. Importance of historical understanding
- 3. There is no escape from values
- 4. IR is fundamentally a normative enterprise
Def. of international society?
A group of states conscious of certain common interests and common values forms a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another and share in the working of common institutions
Characteristics of international society?
- 1. sovereign states
- 2. Importance of mutual recognition (ex. china)
- 3. How do states act
- 4. States not the only members
- 5. Some kind of common interest
- 6. Importance of order! (not harmonious, but tolerable)
Two types of international society?
Pluralist and Solidarist
Pluralist international society?
- The institutional framework is geared towards the liberty of states and the maintenance of order among them
- rules are compiled with bc like rules of the road, fidelity to them is relatively cost free but the collective benefits are enormous
- pluralist rules and norms provide a structure of coexistence
Solidarist international society?
- An extension of an international society not its transformation
- individuals are entitled to basic rights
- There is a duty to intervene forcibly to protect those rights
- However, until there was a greater consensus on the meaning and priority to be accorded to rights claims, attempts to enforce them this it is likely any intervention would do more harm than good
What shares a lot with realism and is more concerned with what it tells about international society?
System: comes before international societies, tells us boundaries, and ultimately is just an ordering principle
What runs parallel to international society with one Key difference?
World society; refers to the shared interests and values linking all parts of the human community, emergence of human rights and international humanitarian law, UN charter, Importance of transitional values grounded in liberal notions of rights and justice
Background of WST: Historical Materialism and WST both neo-marxism perspectives...otherwise known as class theory, what does this mean?
- Like other theorists, there is an emancipatory purpose
- These used to be far more important than they are today...were once clear challenger to the big two.
- This was prior to the end of the cold war, then it changed
- 1. Focus on the "mode of production"
- 2. Both utilize the concept of a "world capitalist system"
- 3. Focus on imperialism
- 4. Structure determines behavior
- 5. possibility of radical change
- 6. Levels of analysis should not exist
- politics, economics and culture indivisible
- the only that really studies this simultaneous relationship
- 7. class structure at heart(historical materialism & WST)
Both utilize the concept of a "world capitalist system"?
- Produces an ideology that justifies itself
- Even if it only serves the dominant class
- Political, legal, religious, moral, philosophical, cultural institutions: referred to as the "historic bloc"
- small businesses drive the economy- not true
- American dream
Focus on imperialism is what?
subtle and overt
What are explanations that do not lie just in the processes and choices purely internal to nation-states and their societies but position they occupy?
Structure that determines behavior
Structure determines behavior?
- Historical materialism, divides it into north and south
- WST, divides it core, periphery, semiperiphery
- Core-developed, industrialized
- periphery- poorest nations in the world
- semiperiphery- countries in transition
Possibility of radical Change?
progressive view of history( only a matter of time for revolutionary change; at some point the working class will rise up and overthrow)
- 1. purpose of study ( system change bias, system maintenance bias)
- 2. difference in Epistemology (post positivist vs WST positivist)
- 3. Temporal focus (HM more immediate; WST, only understand today through history; Both are still really path dependent)