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- Arnolfo di Cambio, Florence cathedral,
- Florence Italy.
- Begun 1296.
- Wide, Open expansive interior.
- Broad heavy piers allow side aisle spaces to flow into nave, very widely spaced
- Dark interiors of French Gothic are replaced by a lighter interior.
- Campanile: crisply divided horizontal sections stack floors one above the
- other; variously colored marbles inspired by Italian Romanesque buildings;
- patterns of rectangular blocks of marble cover the surface
- Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned.
- Tempera on Panel. Uffizi, Florence. 1280-1290.
- Maniera Greca; figures rise in a hieratic Byzantine manner.
- Emphasis on flatness of forms; angels hover around throne.
- Long, thin elegant figures; strong vertically.
- Flecks of gold define drapery folds
- Mary with byzantine shaped face and stylized features
- Not byzantine in side; byzantine icons are portable.
Italian FLorentie Gothic
- Giotto, Madonna Enthroned.
- Tempera on panel, 1310.
- Weight, size, solidarity, 3D, bulk.
- Marys breasts and kneed revealed beneath drapery.
- angels stand more naturally around the gothic throne with overlapping.
- Perspective indicated in the positioning of the arms of the throne and the
- shadowing of the steps.
- Some faces turn away from the picture plane.
- More human and rounded.
- Italian florentine Gothic
- Fresco. Padua, Italy. 1305-1306.
- Shallow stage, figures occupy a palpable space pushed forward toward the
- picture plane.
- Diagonal cliff formation points to main action daringly placed in lower left
- hand corner.
- Modeling indicates direction of light, light falls from above right.
- Range of emotions: heavy sadness. Quiet resignation, flaming outbursts, despair.
- Figures seen from the back seem to isolate the main action.
- Sienese Gothic
- Duccio, Maesta.
- Tempera on panel. 1308-1311
- Hierartic arrangement of figures in three horizontal registers.
- Fluttering. Light drapery lines fall in zigzag patterns.
- Decoratively patterned throne folds outward to reveal Mary and Jesus Enthroned.
- Sienese Gothic
- Simone Martini, Annunciation.
- 1333, Tempera on panel.
- Grain of marble floor retreats in perspective.
- Elegant figures, drapery, ornament.
- Use of gold abounds.
- Angel: beautifully and subtly modeled.
- Mary: shrinks back in modesty, the figure of a courtly medieval woman.
- Traditional gold wall background in effect becomes the rear wall.
- International gothic style of painting.
- Italian Gothic
- Nicola Pisano, the pisa pulpit, 1259-1260.
- Pisa Baptistry, Pisa, Italy.
- 5 panels. Gothic Corinthian capitals closer in design to ancient capitals than
- to contemporary French. Round arches cusp in French gothic style.
- Annunciation and nativity is very crowded composition of figures layered atop
- one another. Massive drapery that forms logically around bodies that are stocky
- and solidly conceived. As in Italian painting, facial expression and gesture
- enliven figures that communicate with one another.
- Saint Denis, 1140-1144. Saint Denis, France
- Rib vaults start at the celing and fow down as far as the capitals on the
- Pointed Arches
- Moves away from the demarcation of spaces in the Romanesque period; radiating
- chapels open up and one continuous space is created; the chapels flow
- Notre Dame. Paris. Begun 1150s.
- FKying buttresses first used on large scale here.
- rib vaults start at the celing and go as far as the columns.
- vaults span 2 bays.
- 5 floors with the third floor having a rose window.
- Chartres Cathedral, begun 1134.
- Chartres, France.
- Large windows, legendary stained glass.
- RObert de luzarches, thomas and renaud de cormont. Amiens
- Cathedral Begun 1220. Amiens, france.
- four part rib vaults.
- larger expanse of windows.
- façade: more extravagant
- If hagia sophia is the perfect expression of byantine spirituality in architexture, amiens with its soaring vaults and giant windows admitting divine colored light is similar.
GOthic art in italy
- Key Ideas: Late gothic art in Italy forms a bridge between medieval and
- renaissance art.
- The Artist becomes an important historical personality whose life story can be
- traced and recorded.
- Aspects of ancient sculpture are revitalized under the artistic leadership of
- the Pisani family.
- The Sienese and Florentine schools of painting dominate trecento art.
history of gothic art in italy
- Artists self-consciously and confidently began signing works more regularly.
- With Cimabue and Nicola Pisano, the first traceable and coherent artistic
- careers begin to emerge. Artist signature indicate their rising status- a
- radical break from the general anonymity in which earlier medieval artists had
- toiled- and a need to imprint their accomplishments on works they felt
- particularly fond of.
Characteristics of Italian gothic
- Unlike northern gothic buildings, Italian buildings stress WIDTH as well as
- height. Even though most Italian churches are as tall as their French
- counterparts, the horizontal emphasis is so strong that the height seems
- restrained. Interiors feature ONE story of arches and second of windows.
- Intermediary stories that were found in early Christian and French gothic buildings
- were sometimes abandoned. Wide naves focus attention on apses backlit by tall
- windows. Clearly articulated rib vaults open up the clerestory to admit volumes
- of light filtered by thin masses of pastel colored stained glass windows.
Characteristics of Florentine
- Italian painting of the late gothic period is characterized by large scale
- panels that stand on their own.
- Late gothic artists preferred fresco and tempera, techniques that enabled them
- to shade figures convincingly and reach for a 3D reality. At first artists like
- Cimabue accepted Byzantine formulas for pictorial representation, commonly
- referred to as the maniera greca. Subsequent Florentine paints under the
- guidance of Giotto, began to move away from this tradition and toward a
- different concept of reality that substantiated masses and anchored figures to
- ground lines. Through expressive faces and meaningful gestures, emotions become
- more palpable and dynamic. Florentine painting dares to experiment with
- compositional arrangements, moving the focus away from the center of the
Characteristics of Sienese
- Unlike their Florentine contemporaries , sienese painters opted for a
- decorative style of painting, more reminiscent of Northern European art.
- Figures are thinner, elegant and courtly. Colors are richly decorative. Drapery
- is less defined by mass than by the thin flutering of draperies and the
- zigzagging of complex linear patterns. Instead of falling straight to the
- ground, drapery is more likely to curve artistically in a flouncing series of
- ripples. Sienese painters like to imitate marble patterning on thrones or
- pavements. Even though hierarchy of scale remains, fogures are more likely than
- in northern European art to be in proportion to one another, Although as in
- florenting painting, the still dominate architectural settings. Italian
- altarpieces reflect the construction of the Gothic churches which embrace them.
- Like Florentines, sienese artists explore 3D, although they reached more deeply
- into the picture plan by carving out interiors.
Characteristics of Italian gothic sculpture:
- Italian gothic sculpture was more influenced by classical models. Nicola Pisano
- strengthened the attachment to Roman forms bu nuilding figures of solid mass
- and form, realistically arranged drapery. There was still a tendency, however,
- to create compositions that were crowded, with various episodes represented in
- horror vacui, stacked one about another. The principal scene dominates bu its
- size, but subsidiary scenes compete for attention in available blank spaces.
- Gothic architecture built on advances made in the Romanesque: the rib vault, the
- pointed arch and the bay stem of construction.
- GOthic architecture reached new vertical heights through the use of flying
- buttresses that carry the weight of the roof to the walls outside the building
- and deflect wind pressure.
- Gothic sculpture particularly on portals, is more 3D than its Romanesque
- counterparts, emerging from the wall, and emphasizing the verticality of the
- Gothic manuscript painting is influenced by the luminosity and richness of
- stained glass windows.
Gothic Patronage and Artistic Life:
- Joint effort to build by everyone.
- In manuscripts, a scribe copied the text but in so doing left room for
- decorative touches such as intials, borders, and narrative scenes.
- Embellishments were added by artists who could express themselves more full than
- scribes who had to stick to the text.
- Gothic architecture developed advances made in the Romanesque:
- 1. The rib vault. Invented at the end of the Romanesque period and became the
- standard vaulting practice of the gothic period.
- 2. Bays. The Romanesque use of repeated vertical elements in bays also became
- standard of the gothic period.
- 3. The rose window. Begun as an oculus on such buildings are st. sernin at
- Toulouse, the rose window becomes an elaborate circular feature that opens up
- wall spaces by allowing more light in through the façade and trancepts.
- 4. The pointed arch. First seen in Islamic Spain, this arch directs thrusts
- down to the floor more efficiently than rounded arches.
- Whats NEW to the gothic period are flying buttresses. ( The earliest seen
- on notre dame in paris).
- These stone arches support a roof by having the weight bypass the walls and
- travel down to piers more stained glass.
- Most importantly, flying buttresses also help to stabilize the building,
- preventing wind stresses from damaging these very vertical and narrow
- Ground pans of gothic buildings denote innovations in the east end or chevet. Choir allowed for more space between
- the transept and the apse. Public now is farther away from the ceremony.
- Another NEW innovation is the intro
- of decorative pinnacles on the roof
- of gothic churches. Long thought to be mere ornaments on flying buttresses,
- pinnacles are now understoof to be essential architectural components that act
- as stabilizing forces in a wind storm.
Characteristics of Gothic
- Tall and narrow, forces worshipper to look up upon church.
- Reinforces the religious symbolism.
- gothic tend to be nestled downtown, and rising above the city landscape as
- appoint of civic view.EARLY: round
- columns in interior. Rib vaults start at celiing and stop at top of column.
- Notre dame and saint denis are early gothic. High gothic: articulated columns. Rib vaults travel all the way
- down to the floor. Larger window space; larger choir and chevets. More sculpted
- on the façade. Amiens and the interior of Chartres are high gothic. Rayonnant (Radiating): dissolution of
- wall space with freat sheets of stained glass like rose windows. Thing groups
- of columns. Saint Chapelle is this. Late
- gothic: highly decorative. A mass of pinnacles and tracery. Ogee (pointed)
- arches are used. Saint Maclou is this.
- English Gothic: contructed in a
- garden like seeing called a close. They have extremely prounounced central apires, smaller FB, lower towers,
- dimunitive portals, and wide boxy screenlike facades with sculpture
- everywhere.Prefer a long horizontal view down the nave terminating in a square
- rather than rounded apse, with corners meeting at right angles. Enjoys two
- trancepts instead of the French one and both prominently stick out from the
- main body of the building. They use FANvaults that looks like a oyster shell
- with ripples.
- Salisbury Cathedral
- Begun 1220. Salisbury, England.
- Wide facade. Subdued flying butresses.
- two trancepts
- square apse
- long horizontal enphasis
- Saint CHapelle
- Paris, France.
- 3/4 of wall space is windows, slenderness of columns, sheets of glass, symoblizes a giant reliquary.
- Saint Maclou. Rouen, France.
- Late gothic, five portals of which two are blind, skeletal gables over portals
- BLanche of Castile and Louis IX, 1226-1234.
- From moralized bible.
- Luminosity of stained glass windows, strong black outlining of forms. Modeling is minimal, color restricted.
Innovations in gothic sculpture
Saint Denis was the first building that had statue columns on the jambs. Although still attatched these figures have rounded volums that set them apart from the architectural background. The statue colums at the Royal Portals at Chartres appear to imitate the verticality of the church itself but contain a robust 3D lacking in the Romanesque period.Columns seem to interact with each other like in the Visitation at Reims Cathedral. Romanesque sculpture stressed the last judgment and the threat of hell. Gothic sculpure concentrates on the possibility of salvation.
Characteristics of Gothic Sculpture
In romanesque sculpture, figures are flattened into the wall space of tympana or jambs, being content to be defined by the space. In gothic sculpture, the statue columns progress away from the wall, building a space seemingly independent of the walll surface. the Royal Portal beings this process by bringing fogures forward although they are still columnar