HIST 1302

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emoya14
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121588
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HIST 1302
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2011-12-07 17:29:03
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Final Exam
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For College History Part 2
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  1. Before he became president in 1912, Woodrow Wilson’s major political experience was in
    domestic policy.
  2. During World War I, the situation of American workers
    improved significantly.
  3. American involvement in World War I helped to ensure the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, which
    prohibited the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcohol.
  4. After the United States entered World War I, suffragists increased popular support for their cause by
    linking women’s voting rights to wartime national unity
  5. President Wilson’s 1918 “Fourteen Points” speech was intended to offer a blueprint for
    establishing a new democratic world order.
  6. President Wilson believed that the Fourteen Points would shape the 1919 peace negotiations in Paris because
    he had enormous popular support at home and abroad
  7. At the 1919 peace negotiations in Paris, the major Allied leaders felt that President Wilson was
    a naive idealist.
  8. Democratic equality sustained a blow when the 1919 Paris peace conference refused to accept Japan’s
    proposal for a clause endorsing the principle of racial equality.
  9. The postwar economy of the United States suffered because
    military demobilization and the end of wartime spending was quick and largely unplanned.
  10. After World War I ended, American businesses responded to their workers by
    overturning labor’s wartime gains.
  11. In November 1919, residents of the town of Centralia, Washington, responded to the Red scare by
    engaging in vigilante violence against radicals.
  12. resident Wilson and his secretary of state, William Jennings Bryan, believed that the purpose of foreign policy was to
    encourage democracy and protect American investments in the Western Hemisphere.
  13. The Supreme Court's 1919 decision in the Schenck v. United States case established a "clear and present danger" test that
    could be used to restrict free speech.
  14. By the early twentieth century, European diplomats had developed a complex system of alliances that was aimed at maintaining a balance of power on the continent
    but resulted instead in magnifying the possibility of conflict.
  15. The sequence of events that led to the outbreak of World War I began on June 28, 1914, when
    Bosnian Serb terrorist killed the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
  16. The Military Draft Act of 1917 took the unusual step of
    prohibiting prostitution and alcohol near training camps.
  17. At the time the United States entered World War I in 1917, the conflict in Europe hadurned into a stalemate.
    turned into a stalemate.
  18. After a major German offensive in March 1918 on French ports on the Atlantic, General John Pershing
    led his troops into action.
  19. The country that suffered the greatest loss of life as a result of World War I was
    Germany
  20. To progressives, the American involvement in World War I seemed like an opportunity because it
    forced the federal government to assert greater control over the economy.
  21. The scandals that plagued President Harding’s administration
    touched the highest levels of government.
  22. In the eyes of rural dwellers of the 1920s, cities were
    a menace to traditional values
  23. By 1924, congressional laws that imposed immigration quotas
    ensured a large reduction in the number of southern and eastern European immigrants.
  24. The revived Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s
    had a nationwide membership
  25. Herbert Hoover’s performance as head of the Food Administration under President Wilson helped fuel expectations that he would be
    a great president
  26. Herbert Hoover’s belief in the principles of self–reliance, industrial self–management, and limited federal government
    severely handicapped his ability to respond to the nation’s economic problems during his term as president.
  27. American trade policies of the 1920s led to
    an unstable cycle of European debt.
  28. In America in the 1920s, a serious problem in domestic consumption was created by
    an imbalance of wealth
  29. During the 1930s, Los Angeles County responded to the growing presence of Mexicans by
    deporting them, regardless of their citizenship status.
  30. During the Great Depression, white women who worked in service–sector industries
    were not hit as hard by unemployment as men in the steel and automobile industries.
  31. President Coolidge’s policy toward big business was to
    use the government to help businesses, not restrain them.
  32. Movies during the early 1930s were required to
    find some way to show that crime did not pay.
  33. The Five–Power Naval Treaty that emerged from the Washington Disarmament Conference earned President Harding acclaim for
    preserving the peace without forcing the United States to join the League of Nations.
  34. By the 1920s, the growing use of scientific management techniques in manufacturing had resulted in
    much higher productivity and profits but only slightly higher wages.
  35. During the Great Depression, the most acute poverty existed in
    rural areas
  36. The unintended consequences of prohibition included
    lawlessness.
  37. By the late 1920s, women who were interested in progressive reform
    worked through a network of private agencies and associations.
  38. Women who worked outside of the home in the 1920s
    had more but still limited opportunities.
  39. Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) to encourage African Americans to
    gain economic and political independence.
  40. During the 1920s, the rural areas of the United States
    became less important politically and culturally.
  41. The instruction that Franklin Roosevelt received at home and at school while growing up in Hyde Park, New York, instilled in him a belief that
    the privileged had a duty to look after the welfare of the poor and weak
  42. The American Liberty League’s well–financed publicity campaign
    underscored the divisions between the business community and the Roosevelt administration.
  43. The failure of the National Recovery Administration (NRA) demonstrated that
    Americans resisted economic planning and that the business community would not yield its autonomy voluntarily
  44. The Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) fared better than the NRA because
    allotment checks and rising farm produce prices engendered loyalty among farmers large enough to qualify for the program.
  45. More than just a “pick–and–shovel” work relief program, the Works Progress Administration also
    employed many artists to make use of their talents for public benefit.
  46. The new left–wing militancy of labor unions drew
    large numbers of unskilled factory workers, most of them immigrants, women, and African Americans.
  47. The United Auto Workers (UAW) succeeded in unionizing workers at General Motors in 1937 following
    a “sit–down” strike that crippled production on the main assembly plant in Flint, Michigan.
  48. Economic conservatives and the Republican Party opposed Social Security because
    they claimed it would give the government too much control over private property.
  49. During the election campaign of 1936, conservative leaders believed
    that the New Deal’s failure to end the depression would mean that Americans were ready for change.
  50. President Roosevelt wanted to change the composition of the Supreme Court because
    he felt that the actions of the Court against New Deal programs threatened the ability of Congress to act effectively in times of emergency.
  51. The United States Congress’s oldest members responded to President Roosevelt’s court–packing plan with
    anger
  52. As a result of his therapy treatments for polio in Warm Springs, Georgia, Roosevelt
    developed political relationships with southern Democrats.
  53. Factors that began to work against the expansion of New Deal programs included
    antagonism between conservatives and New Dealers, as well as Roosevelt’s own conviction that the depression was largely over.
  54. During Roosevelt’s term as governor of New York, he intervened in the economy on behalf of the needy and angered conservatives who
    believed that the government should stay out of the economy and let market forces run their course.
  55. In 1932, supporters of the Democratic Party
    were divided by region, religion, culture, and ethnicity
  56. The watchwords of President Roosevelt and his New Deal advisers were
    action, experiment, and improvise.
  57. The Emergency Banking Act programs and the Glass–Steagall Banking Act followed a philosophy of
    leaving banks in private hands but providing them with federal funds while implementing more stringent regulation of their practices.
  58. Franklin Roosevelt’s “fireside chats,” which quickly became a fixture of his administration,
    enabled Roosevelt to build a rapport with millions of ordinary Americans.
  59. The Securities and Exchange Commission tried to reform the stock market by
    monitoring all stock transactions.
  60. Business leaders continued to criticize the New Deal even as their economic situation improved, because they
    feared government regulation, higher taxes, and union organization.
  61. During the presidential campaign of 1932, President Roosevelt shielded himself from accusations that he was a proponent of internationalism by
    pulling back from his endorsement of the League of Nations and reversing his position on forgiving European war debts.
  62. Women who joined the military during World War II
    served in many different capacities but were barred from combat duty.
  63. During the war, the top U.S. military leaders strove to keep African Americans relegated to performing menial tasks
    in segregated units
  64. The War Production Board
    set production priorities and pushed for maximum output.
  65. After the conquest of the oil–rich Dutch East Indies in 1942, Japan aimed its sights on
    Australia and New Zealand
  66. American military officials hoped that they could reverse the Japanese advance in the Pacific by undertaking a counteroffensive in the spring of 1942
    that was two–pronged.
  67. As in World War I, the Germans attempted to starve the British into surrendering by
    As in World War I, the Germans attempted to starve the British into surrendering by
  68. In 1942, the biggest question facing the Allies regarding the fight against the Nazis was when to
    open a second front
  69. The wartime economy created new opportunities for women as
    factory workers
  70. The war overseas had a strong impact on the domestic U.S. economy,
    dramatically expanding employment and wages.
  71. During the 1940s, African Americans became a predominantly
    urban population
  72. Roosevelt’s cooling of support for the League of Nations was followed by
    Japan’s withdrawal from the League and Germany’s recall of its representative to the League.
  73. African Americans’ migration to defense jobs brought them both economic progress and
    racial antagonism
  74. The invasion of France, called D Day, took place on June 6, 1944, at
    Normandy
  75. In late 1944, as Allied and Soviet forces closed in on Germany, Adolf Hitler ordered a counterattack to capture a crucial supply port, resulting in the
    Battle of The Bulge
  76. At Yalta, a seriously ill Franklin Roosevelt felt that he had gotten what he wanted from Joseph Stalin when the Russian leader agreed to
    allow the self–determination of eastern European countries.
  77. At Yalta, the “Big Three” agreed on the creation of a new international organization to respond to world political and military issues, to be called the
    united nations
  78. President Roosevelt’s good neighbor policy suggested a shift from previous administrations that had
    intervened militarily in the economic and social life of Latin American nations.
  79. The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934 gave the president the power to
    reduce high American tariffs on a nation–by–nation basis for countries that would lower their tariffs on American exports in return.
  80. In September 1938, Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, offered Adolf Hitler terms of “appeasement,” which included the stipulation that Hitler
    leave the rest of Czechoslovakia alone.
  81. The Maginot Line failed to stop Germany’s invasion of France because
    Germany’s mechanized divisions easily bypassed the line of fixed defenses.
  82. Although undermanned and outgunned, the Royal Air Force handed Hitler his first defeat when they won the
    The Battle of Britain
  83. A few months after Germany’s invasion of Poland, Congress finally consented to President Roosevelt’s wishes and revised America’s neutrality legislation to allow a cash–and–carry policy for the purchase of
    arms and nonmilitary supplies.
  84. In 1942, President Roosevelt issued an executive order that all Americans of Japanese descent be rounded up and
    put in “relocation centers.”
  85. America’s post–World War II foreign policy was shaped in part by a belief that the war might have been avoided if Britain and France had

    resisted Hitler’s initial aggression.
  86. With the help of the Chinese, the North Koreans drove the UN forces back into South Korea and recaptured
    Seoul
  87. President Truman used the Korean conflict to justify
    increasing the United States’ capacity to act as a global military power.
  88. By 1953, U.S. defense spending had risen to $50 billion, representing
    60 percent of the total federal budget.
  89. Joseph Stalin felt that U.S. officials’ insistence that he permit democratic elections in Eastern Europe was
    hypocritical
  90. The European Recovery Program approved by Congress in March 1948 did all of the following except
    benefit the economies of the Eastern European nations.
  91. When Jews in Palestine declared the independent state of Israel in May 1948, President Truman
    recognized the new country immediately
  92. With regard to postwar economic problems, most Americans placed the blame for rising prices and shortages of consumer goods on
    organized labor
  93. The federal government made a landmark commitment to address the housing needs of the poor with congressional approval of the
    Housing Act of 1949.
  94. Republicans during the postwar period tried to undermine New Deal programs and Democrats in general by
    associating both with communism.
  95. Most of the people hunted down during the post–World War II Red scare had
    at one time joined the Communist Party, associated with Communists, or supported radical causes.
  96. The United States took advantage of the Soviet Union’s absence from the UN Security Council in June 1950 to
    obtain UN sponsorship of a military defense of South Korea.
  97. President Eisenhower, the first Republican to occupy the White House since the New Deal,
    left the size and functions of the government intact.
  98. Among the losers during the agricultural transformations of the 1950s were
    small farmers, southern sharecroppers, and African Americans.
  99. In 1957, union membership as a percentage of the total labor force peaked at
    27.1%
  100. William J. Levitt helped make the suburbs accessible to families with modest incomes by
    applying assembly–line production methods to the construction of houses.
  101. By 1960, the American middle class
    had grown to include 60 percent of the U.S. population.
  102. The acquisition of consumer goods by Americans in the 1950s was stimulated in part by
    consumer credit and indebtedness.
  103. Betty Friedan's 1963 book The Feminine Mystique argued that society's idealization of the roles of wife and mother had
    pressured women to seek fulfillment in serving others.
  104. The American birthrate, which was in decline throughout much of the first half of the twentieth century, reached a peak in 1957 in the midst of a surge that lasted from
    1945 to 1965.
  105. In the South, the civil rights movement benefited from African Americans’ control of
    resources that were essential to organizing a mass movement.
  106. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) reached its crowning achievement when
    the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Oliver Brown in Brown v. Board of Education.
  107. In the first federal military intervention in the South since Reconstruction, President Eisenhower
    sent armed forces to oversee the integration of a public school.
  108. Although he deplored Joseph McCarthy’s aggressive anti–Communist methods, President Eisenhower
    never publicly denounced McCarthy.
  109. Although African Americans had boycotted segregated bus systems before, the first sustained protest to draw national attention occurred in
    Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955 and 1956.
  110. Although liberals ridiculed Dwight Eisenhower’s conservatism by calling him President “Eisen–hoover,” his administration
    extended the welfare state.
  111. President Eisenhower helped to foster large tax cuts that
    favored business and the wealthy.
  112. President Eisenhower's embrace of a U.S. defense strategy that relied on nuclear weapons and airpower was tied into all of the following factors except
    Eisenhower’s belief that a society always thrived within a state based on warfare.
  113. During the cold war, Americans realized that nuclear weapons were useless in liberating the countries behind the iron curtain from Communist influence because
    the weapons would annihilate the very peoples the United States promised to liberate.
  114. President Eisenhower applied the domino theory to
    southeast asia
  115. The United States, which did not sign the 1954 Geneva accords that temporarily partitioned Vietnam while mandating future elections for a unified Vietnamese government,
    supported the South Vietnamese prime minister’s refusal to hold the elections.
  116. The productivity of postwar American agriculture significantly increased because
    technological improvements and mechanization helped farmers to prosper.
  117. President Eisenhower, the first Republican to occupy the White House since the New Deal,
    left the size and functions of the government intact.
  118. Among the losers during the agricultural transformations of the 1950s were
    small farmers, southern sharecroppers, and African Americans.
  119. In 1957, union membership as a percentage of the total labor force peaked at
    27.1%
  120. William J. Levitt helped make the suburbs accessible to families with modest incomes by
    applying assembly–line production methods to the construction of houses.
  121. By 1960, the American middle class
    had grown to include 60 percent of the U.S. population.
  122. The acquisition of consumer goods by Americans in the 1950s was stimulated in part by
    consumer credit and indebtedness.
  123. Betty Friedan's 1963 book The Feminine Mystique argued that society's idealization of the roles of wife and mother had
    pressured women to seek fulfillment in serving others.
  124. The American birthrate, which was in decline throughout much of the first half of the twentieth century, reached a peak in 1957 in the midst of a surge that lasted from
    1945 to 1965.
  125. In the South, the civil rights movement benefited from African Americans’ control of
    resources that were essential to organizing a mass movement.
  126. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) reached its crowning achievement when
    the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Oliver Brown in Brown v. Board of Education.
  127. In the first federal military intervention in the South since Reconstruction, President Eisenhower
    sent armed forces to oversee the integration of a public school.
  128. Although he deplored Joseph McCarthy’s aggressive anti–Communist methods, President Eisenhower
    never publicly denounced McCarthy.
  129. Although African Americans had boycotted segregated bus systems before, the first sustained protest to draw national attention occurred in
    Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955 and 1956.
  130. Although liberals ridiculed Dwight Eisenhower’s conservatism by calling him President “Eisen–hoover,” his administration
    extended the welfare state
  131. President Eisenhower helped to foster large tax cuts that
    favored business and the wealthy.
  132. President Eisenhower's embrace of a U.S. defense strategy that relied on nuclear weapons and airpower was tied into all of the following factors except
    Eisenhower’s belief that a society always thrived within a state based on warfare.
  133. During the cold war, Americans realized that nuclear weapons were useless in liberating the countries behind the iron curtain from Communist influence because
    the weapons would annihilate the very peoples the United States promised to liberate.
  134. President Eisenhower applied the domino theory to
    southeast asia
  135. The United States, which did not sign the 1954 Geneva accords that temporarily partitioned Vietnam while mandating future elections for a unified Vietnamese government,
    supported the South Vietnamese prime minister’s refusal to hold the elections.
  136. The productivity of postwar American agriculture significantly increased because
    technological improvements and mechanization helped farmers to prosper.
  137. John F. Kennedy’s triumphs in a series of state primaries were attributable to his handsome appearance, dynamic style, and
    overwhelming financial advantage.
  138. To teach the history and values of Indian culture, the American Indian Movement (AIM) established
    survival schools
  139. Unlike Cesar Chavez, with whom she cofounded the United Farm Workers, Dolores Huerta was brought up
    in an integrated urban neighborhood
  140. Chicano activists founded their own political party in Texas in 1970 and called it
    la raza unida
  141. African American feminists believed that the National Organization for Women and other leading women’s rights groups
    were dominated by middle–class white women who ignored the concerns of women of color.
  142. The countermovement against feminists and their campaign for women’s rights was led by
    Phyllis Schlafly.
  143. In the landmark 1973 case Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that abortion
    was a right protected by the Constitution.
  144. Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972
    outlawed gender discrimination in all aspects of education.
  145. During his campaign for the presidency in 1968, Richard Nixon described the Great Society as a
    failed waste of billions of dollars.
  146. The Nixon administration either promoted or accepted important elements of the liberal reform agenda because
    the Democratic Party majority in Congress overcame Nixon’s efforts to eliminate them.
  147. In 1971, Richard Nixon combated inflation and unemployment by
    freezing wages and prices, devaluing the dollar, and taxing imports.
  148. In 1963, President Kennedy attempted to stimulate the economy by
    advocating a large tax cut
  149. Richard Nixon responded to Native Americans’ demands for justice with
    moderately strong support
  150. After Kennedy’s assassination, debate continued over how to assess his domestic record, which included initiatives
    on taxes, civil rights, and poverty.
  151. Lyndon Johnson assumed the presidency with
    a wealth of political experience.
  152. Massive direct action for civil rights began in February 1960, when four African American students in Greensboro, North Carolina,
    sat at a whites–only lunch counter and requested service.
  153. Although some communities met the demands of student activists, authorities and local citizens typically
    reacted to demonstrators with violence.
  154. In 1963, a campaign to integrate public facilities and open jobs to blacks in Birmingham, Alabama, was led by
    Martin Luther King Jr.
  155. In August 1963, a quarter of a million Americans participated in the largest civil rights demonstration of the era, which took place in
    Washington, D.C.
  156. In 1969, Native American militants in California drew international attention by seizing
    alcatraz island
  157. In regard to combating communism, President Kennedy and the Democratic leadership complained that the Eisenhower era had been one of “drift and impotency,” denying the nation a
    flexible response.
  158. By 1968, antiwar sentiment in the United States had
    entered the cultural mainstream.
  159. Men who opposed the Vietnam War on moral or religious grounds were
    granted conscientious objector status.
  160. The critical turning point in the Vietnam War came for President Johnson with the
    Tet Offensive
  161. President Nixon’s dramatic overtures to the Soviet Union and China
    represented a divergence from Republican orthodoxy.
  162. In 1972, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) produced an agreement that reduced the likelihood of either the Soviet Union or the United States launching a nuclear first strike by limiting the development of
    antiballistic missile systems (ABMs).
  163. After Nixon left the White House, the policy of détente
    made little progress
  164. When Chileans elected Salvador Allende, a self–styled Marxist, to be their president in 1970, the Nixon administration responded by
    ordering the CIA to destabilize the Chilean economy and unseat Allende.
  165. President Kennedy was able to add $3.2 billion to the defense budget and 300,000 troops to the military thanks in part to the
    berlin crisis
  166. President Kennedy launched a dramatic third world initiative in 1961 when he created the
    peace corps
  167. President Kennedy’s concern over Communist expansion prompted him to
    expand U.S. counterinsurgency forces.
  168. President Johnson’s early policies in Vietnam were
    a logical extension of his predecessors’ policies.
  169. President Johnson’s portrayal of the Gulf of Tonkin incident was
    misleading
  170. Although some of his advisers suggested that expanding the war in Vietnam in 1964 was a bad idea, Johnson did so in part because
    he believed American credibility was on the line.
  171. The U.S. strategy of gradually intensified bombing of North Vietnam was called
    Operation Rolling Thunder.
  172. The first major protest against the war in Vietnam was organized by Students for a Democratic Society in
    1965

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