Disturbances in FLuid Volume

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  1. these fluid imbalances occur when water and electrolytes are lost or gained in equal proportions.
    Isotonic fluid imbalances
  2. these fluid imbalances involve the loss or gain of only water
    Osmolar fluid imbalances
  3. This Isotonic fluid imbalance occurs when the body loses both water and electrolytes from the ECF in similar proportions.
    • FVD
    • (Fluid Volume Deficit)
  4. In FVD, fluid is initially lost from the intravascular compartment, so it is often called WHAT?
  5. What ususally occurs as a RESULT of:
    (a) abnormal losses through the skin, GI tract, or kidneys; (b) decreased intake of fluids; (c) bleeding , or (d) movement of fluid into a third space?
    • FVD (Fluid Volume Deficit)
    • or Hypovolemia
  6. this a Definition of what?
    fluid shifts from the vascular space into an area where it is not readily accessible as extracellular fluid
    Thrid Space Syndrome
  7. What are the 2 distict phases of third spacing?
    loss and reabsorption
  8. what occurs when the body retains both water and sodium in similar proportions to normal ECF?
    Fluid Volume Excess or FVE
  9. increased blood volume
  10. what is always secondary to an increase in the total body sodium content, which leads to and increase in total body water?
    FVE or fuild Volume excess
  11. What are the specific causes of FVE (fluid volume excess)?
    • excecss intake of sodium chloride
    • administering sodium-containing infusions too rapidly, particularly to clients with impaired regulatory mechanisms
    • disease processes that alter regulatory mechanisms, such as heart failure, Renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and cushing syndrome
  12. The following clinical manifestations are for what fluid imbalance?
    -compliants of weakness and thirst
    -decreased tissue turgor
    -subnormal temperature
    -weak pulse; tachycardia
    -decreased BP
    -decreased capillary refill
    • FVD (fluid VOlume Deficit)
    • or hypovolemia
  13. -decreased capillary refill
    • FVD (fluid VOlume Deficit)
    • or hypovolemia
  14. The follwoing clinical manifestations are for what fluid imbalance?
    -mental confusion
    -distended neck muscles
    -increased BP
    -Full, bounding pulse
    -Mental confusion
    -Moist crackles in lungs, dyspnea, SOB
    • FVE (fluid volume excess)
    • or hypervolemia
  15. Definition:
    Excess interstitial fluid
  16. What are the 3 main mechanisms that can cause edema?
    • increased capillary hyrostatic pressure
    • decreased serum osmotic pressure
    • increased capillary permiability
  17. Where is edema most commonly found?
    and why?
    • feet
    • ankles
    • sacrum
    • Because of the effects of Gravity
  18. Definition:
    a hyperosmolar fluid imbalance, occurs when water is lost from the body, leaving excess sodium
  19. In this, serum sodium and serum osmolality leves increase
  20. The following people are at risk for what?
    A client that is:
    -older adults
    -prolonged fever
    -diabetic ketoacidosis
    -recieving enteral feedings
  21. Definition:
    a hyoposmolar fluid imbalance, occurs when water is gained in excess of electrolytes, resulting low serum osmolarity and low serum sodium levels
  22. Is also known as water intoxication
  23. THis can result from:
    -SAIDH which can be from malignant tumors, AIDS, head injury, certain drugs (barbituates and anesthetics)
Card Set
Disturbances in FLuid Volume
Disturbances in FLuid VOlume, electrolyte, and acid base balances from Kozier 2012 pgs 1460-1462
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