Food

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JerrahAnn
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121618
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Food
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2011-12-12 23:55:52
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Food
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  1. Cream Puffs: Mixing Method
    • Water and butter in pot to boil
    • Once boiled, all flour is added and stirred vigorously
    • Let cool then stir in eggs
  2. Cream Puffs: Baking Method
    • Start in high temperature oven for steam
    • Turn temperature down to finish cooking
  3. Cream Puff Failures
    • If you boil water and butter too long
    • Evaporated too much of the water
  4. Pancakes
    • Leavening agent
    • - CO2
    • Mixing method
    • - Muffin
    • Cooking method
    • - If griddle isn’t hot, it will stick and not spread
    • - If griddle is too hot, it will burn it
    • Crepes don’t have baking powder in it
  5. Waffles
    • Leavening agent
    • - CO2
    • Mixing method
    • - Muffin
    • Cooking method
    • - Too hot or too cold, batter will stick
  6. Muffins
    • Leavening agent
    • - CO2
    • Mixing method
    • - Muffin
    • Failure
    • - Over-stirring causes it to have peaks and tunnels
    • - Not being ready to put in oven when ready
  7. Biscuits
    • Rolled- uniformed shape
    • Dropped- take dough and drop it on cookie sheet
    • Leavening agent
    • - CO2
    • Mixing method
    • - Biscuit or pastry
  8. Qualities of Good Bread
    • Fine texture
    • Thin cell walls
    • Uniform grain
    • Rounded top
    • Free from rough ragged cracks on sides
    • Light– large volume in relation to weight
    • Crumb- elastic, will bounce back
  9. Yeast
    • Microscopic one-celled plant
    • Produces CO2 from breaking down sugar
    • Too much
    • - Will rise then collapse because it can’t hold
    • - Taste nasty, look grey
  10. Types of Yeast
    • Compressed
    • Active dry yeast
    • Instant quick rising yeast
  11. Yeast Starters
    • Sponge saved from previous baking
    • Replaces yeast
    • Sponge ingredients: Liquid, yeast, sugar, and part of the flour
  12. Whole Wheat Flour
    • Bran will interfere with gluten development
    • Wheat bread is usually 25% whole wheat flour and 75% white flour
  13. Rye Flour
    • High protein content
    • Strong flavor
  14. Liquid Ingredients in Yeast Breads
    • Water – Milk – Egg
    • Purpose- Gelatinizes the starch in the flour
    • Milk should be scalded to destroy any enzymes that will soften the dough
  15. Sugar and Yeast Bread
    • Food for the yeast
    • Helps it brown
    • Provides flavor
  16. Fat and Yeast Bread
    • Keeping quality
    • Handling
    • Volume
    • Tenderness
    • - Coats the glutenin and gliatin so they can’t come together to form gluten
  17. Salt and Yeast Bread
    • Flavor
    • Retards yeast fermentation
    • Affect on gluten
  18. Mixing Methods of Yeast Bread
    • Straight dough
    • Sponge
    • Batter
    • Automatic bread machine
  19. Straight Dough
    • Add warm liquid, sugar, salt, and fat
    • Add the yeast and flour
  20. Sponge
    If have this starter, just and salt and flour then mix
  21. Batter
    Unkneaded dough
  22. Automatic Bread Machine
    Mixes, rises, punches it down
  23. Kneading
    • Importance
    • - Producing the gluten
    • During
    • - Too much flour will make it drier and tougher
  24. Fermentation of Yeast Bread
    • First rising
    • If allowed to go for too long
    • - Will end up with a flat top and be very coars
  25. Proofing
    • Second or final rising after bread is shaped
    • Cold temperatures slow it down
    • Hot temperatures kill it
  26. Conventional Baking of Yeast Bread
    • Oven spring
    • - Sharp rise of dough in first few minutes
    • Affect of temperature increase
    • - Kills yeast
    • Maillard reaction
    • - Browning of the bread
    • Greasing pan
    • - Should only grease the bottom of the pan so it can rise
  27. Microwaving of Yeast Bread
    • White bread
    • - Won’t look appealing
    • Dark bread
    • - Can’t tell it doesn’t brown because it’s already dark
    • Proofing
    • - Have to adjust your microwave to 10% power
  28. Frozen Yeast Doughs
    • Thaw first
    • Let rise
    • Bake
  29. Staling
    • The changes that occur in bread after baking
    • - Increased firmness of crumb
    • - Less moisture
    • - Loss of flavor
    • - Crumbly texture
    • - Leathery crust
  30. Make Bread Fresher
    • Reheat it in oven or freeze it adds moisture back in
    • Refrigeration increases staling
  31. Molding
    • Moisture and warm temperature
    • Refrigeration slows it down
  32. Rope
    • Bacteria contamination that originates in the flour bin
    • Not destroyed when baked
    • Sticky inside pulls like ropes
  33. Shortened Cakes
    • Has fat in it to help plasticity
    • - Pound
    • - Standerdized
  34. Pound Cake
    • Close grain, somewhat compact
    • Should not be heavy or soggy
    • No leavening agent
  35. Standerdized Shortened Cake
    • Fine grain
    • Cells of uniform size
    • Elastic crumb
  36. Sugar: Standard Short Cakes
    • Adds sweetness
    • Interfering agent with gluten development
    • Structure
    • •Weakened
    • Gelatinization
    • •Decreases
    • Viscosity
    • •Less viscous
    • Affect of adding more
    • •Stir more
  37. Eggs: Standard Short Cake
    • Strengthens cake
    • - Coats gluten
    • Finer cells
    • - Thinner walls
    • What happens if add too much
    • - Too dense and taste eggy, tough
  38. Fat: Standard Short Cake
    • Tenderness
    • - Coats glutenin and gliaden so they can’t form gluten
    • Texture
    • - Softer
    • Emulsify
    • - Helps bring fats and waters together
  39. Baking Powder: Standard Short Cake
    • Too much
    • - Would rise too much then collapse
    • Too little
    • - Won’t rise, will be flat
  40. Flour: Standard Short Cake
    • Functions
    • - Provides structure
    • Too much
    • - Dry and tough
    • Too little
    • - Wet and moist, probably won’t make structure
  41. Liquid: Standard Short Cake
    • Dissolves sugar and salt
    • Affect on baking powder
    • - To form CO2
    • Disperse ingredients
    • Hydrate
    • Steam
  42. Chocolate Cake
    • Amount of flour needed
    • - Need less flour because chocolate contains starch
    • Amounts of sugar and fat
    • - Need more sugar and fat to help tenderize
    • Difference between cocoa and chocolate
    • - Cocoa contains more starch than chocolate forming a better structure
  43. Conventional Mixing Method
    • More time consuming than other methods
    • Cream fat and sugar together
  44. Conventional Sponge Mixing Method
    • Used in lean cakes
    • Angel food cake
    • Flour is folded in
  45. Make Bread fresher
    Eggs, milk, and melted fat are mixed together and added at once to the dry ingredients
  46. Quick-Mix Method
    Single stage, one-bowl, one-mix
  47. Texture of Cake Affected By:
    • Amount of mixing
    • - If not mixed enough won’t produce enough gluten, soft
    • Properties of ingredients
    • - Makes a difference on texture
    • Quantity of batter
    • Temperature of ingredients
    • - When the gluten sets
    • Quantity of baking powder
    • Time when powder is added
    • - Produces CO2 and if left too long, won’t be there when baking it
  48. Undermanipulation of Cake
    • Volume
    • - Low
    • Texture
    • - Dense, soft
    • Cell walls
    • - Thick
  49. Overmanipulation of Cake
    • Volume
    • - High because of more air added
    • Texture
    • - Firm, developing more gluten
    • Cell walls
    • - Thin, they’ve been overstretched
  50. Preparation of Shorten Cake Pans
    • Grease the bottom of the cake pan.
    • Line with wax paper
    • Grease wax paper
  51. Baking of Short Cakes
    • Temperature between 350-375°
    • Cooling
    • Minimum amount of time is 10 minutes
  52. Unshortened Cakes
    • Angel food cake
    • - Composed of egg whites, cake flour, sugar, and flavoring
    • Egg whites must be properly beaten to stiff peaks
  53. Angel Food Cake
    • Cake flour
    • - Low protein
    • Produces a more tender cake
    • Sugar
    • - Helps stabilize egg white foams
    • Cream of tartar
    • - Helps stabilize egg white foams
  54. Mixing of Angel Food Cake
    • Egg whites
    • Effects of overbeating
    • • Dry
    • • Air cells break
    • Addition of sugar
    • • Folded in
    • Addition of flour, flavor and salt
    • • Folded in
  55. Angel Food Cake Cooking
    • Preparation of pans
    • - Not greased
    • Baking- 350°
    • Inverted, turned upside down to cool
    • - Prevents from falling
  56. Sponge Cake
    • Similar to Angel Food cakes
    • Do not contain shortening
    • Unlike Angel Food – do contain egg yolk
  57. Loss of Qualities in Cakes
    • Large cells and tunnels
    • Dry, tough crumb
    • Sticky, sugary crust
    • Overflowing pan
    • Too dark a crust
    • Fallen center
    • Peaked or humped
    • Poor volume
  58. Rolled Cookies
    Christmas cookies- roll out and shape
  59. Dropped Cookies
    Chocolate chip cookies
  60. Bar Cookies
    Cooked in a cake pan that you cut
  61. Pressed Cookies
    Shortbread cookies, pressed in shapes
  62. Molded Cookies
    Peanut butter dipped in chocolate
  63. Icebox or Refrigerator Cookies
    Cookies that aren’t baked
  64. Cookies
    • Ingredients
    • - Type of flour- AP
    • Mixing and handling
    • - Conventional method
    • Baking
    • - Use cookie sheets, doesn’t have sides
  65. Meat Composition
    • Water
    • - Not a lot
    • Protein
    • - Very good source of high quality protein
    • Fat
    • - Depends on cut
    • Minerals
    • - Excellent source of iron, zinc and phosphorus
    • - Good source of B vitamins, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin
  66. Meat Composition: Little
    • Vitamins
    • - Some Vitamin E, A
    • Pigments
    • - Myoglobin

    • - Metmyoglobin- brownish color
    • When meat is going bad
    • Enzymes
  67. Lean Uncooked Muscle
    • About 75% water and about 20% protein
    • - Water held by proteins in a gel-type structure
  68. Muscle Fibers
    • Long, threadlike cell.
    • Muscle tissue affects the quality and cooking characteristics
    • Combines to form small bundles
    • Each cell or fiber is surrounded by a fine membrane called sarcolemma
    • Consists of tiny myofibrils
  69. Myofibrils
    • Myosin and actin proteins
    • Actinomyosin is made during muscle contraction
    • • The more made, the tougher the meat
  70. Connective Tissue
    • Binds the muscle cells together in various sized bundles
    • More muscle the tougher the product
  71. Kinds of Connective Tissue
    • Collagen
    • • Tenderized with moist heat
    • Elastin
    • • Should be cut out
    • Reticulin
    • • Delicate network around muscle cells
  72. Fat and Meat
    • May be present on outer cover
    • Between muscles with connective tissue
    • Marbling
    • Older animals
    • - More yellow
  73. Bone
    Aids in identifying cut of meat
  74. Steer
    • Male cow that was castrated when young
    • More tender
  75. Heifer
    • Female that has not had a calf
    • More tender
  76. Cow
    Female that has had a calf
  77. Stag
    • Male that is castrated after maturity
    • Tougher
  78. Bull
    • Male that has never been castrated
    • Toughest
    • Used in processed meats
  79. Veal
    • Only 3 weeks to 3 months old
    • Very tender
    • Male or female
  80. Calf
    • Between 3-8 months
    • Less tender than veal, but more tender than others
  81. Lamb
    • Either gender
    • Less than 14 months
    • Tender
  82. Mutton
    • Either gender
    • Older than 14 months
  83. Pork
    7-12 months of age
  84. Aging in Beef After 1-2 Days
    • Muscle softened
    • Increased tenderness
    • Improvement of flavor
    • Increased juiciness
    • Better browning
  85. Factors Affecting Tenderness of Meat
    • The more connective tissue, the less tender
    • Fat and marbling
    • - More= more tender
    • Other factors
    • - Electrical stimulation
    • - Prodding an animal after slaughter
    • - Hereditary background
    • - Feeding
  86. Inspection of Meat
    • Done for all meats during interstate commerce
    • Inspected alive and during various stages of slaughter
    • Inspect the operating plant
  87. Grades of Meat
    • Voluntary
    • Cost is for meat packers
    • Yield grades are based on cutability
    • • 1 is highest, 5 is lowest
  88. Quality Grades of Meat
    Prime- highest, choice, select, standard, commercial, and utility- dog food
  89. Beef Quality
    • Bright red after exposure to air
    • Fine grained and smooth
    • Fat is firm
    • Chine or backbone is soft, red, and springy
  90. Veal Quality
    • Grayish pink
    • Fat will be firm and brittle
    • Bones are soft, red, and spongy
  91. Pork Quality
    Grayish pink
  92. Lamb Quality
    • Pinkish red
    • Bones are soft, red, and spongy
  93. Meat Labeling
    • Kind of meat
    • Wholesale cut
    • Retail cut
    • - Identified by bone
  94. Beef: Chuck
    • Moist heat cookery
    • Higher fat: higher amounts of connective tissue
  95. Tender Meats
    • Rib
    • Short loin
    • Sirloin
  96. Round Beef
    • Moderately tender
    • Generally lean
  97. Fore Shank/Brisket
    Tends to be high fat
  98. Short Plate
    • Short ribs, beef for stew, Skirt steaks
    • Fajita meat
  99. Flank Steak
    • Flank steaks
    • Coarse structure, must cut across the grain
  100. Boston Shoulder
    • High in connective tissue
    • Not tender
  101. Pork Loin
    Pork chops (center cut are most desirable)
  102. Ham
    • Refers to back leg
    • May be cured or fresh
  103. Picnic Shoulder
    High in connective tissue
  104. Spareribs/Belly
    High in fat and connective tissue
  105. Sweetbreads
    Thymus gland of a calf
  106. Processed Meat
    • Meat that has been changed by treatments that include:
    • • Mechanical
    • • Chemical
    • • Enzymatic
    • Taste, appearance, and frequently the keeping quality are altered
  107. Restructured Meat
    • Meat that has been cut, flaked, chopped, formed then “restructured” into the preferred shape
    • • Many chicken nuggets or chicken patties
    • • Some deli meats
    • • Canadian “style” bacon
    • • Many fish sticks
  108. Curing Ingredients
    • Salt
    • - Only required ingredient
    • - Inhibits the growth of microorganisms
    • Phosphates
    • Nitrate and Nitrites
    • Water
    • Sugar
    • Spices
    • Fat
    • Extenders and Binders
    • - Such as milk, starch, soy, etc.
  109. Sausage
    • Particle reduction
    • Emulsification
    • Blending
    • Forming
    • Casings may – or may not be edible
  110. Ground Beef and Mechanically Tenderized Beef
    • Must be cooked to 155 – 160 degrees F
    • Or purchase irradiated meat
  111. Pork
    • Must be cooked to 145 degrees F
    • Or can be certified as safe if frozen at designated temperature and time
  112. Lamb
    Cook to 145 degrees F
  113. Storage of Meat
    • Beef- 2-4 days or 6-12 months
    • Pork- 2-4 days or 3-6 months
    • Ground beef, veal, and lamb- 1-2 days or 3-4 months
  114. Moist Heat
    • Used for tougher cuts of meat
    • Pressure cooker, boiling, brazing, stewing
  115. Effects of Heat on Meat
    • Originally toughens
    • Later tenderizes
    • Fat melts
    • Water is realeased
    • Cooking losses
    • - Losses weight
    • - Losses vitamins that aren’t heat stable
  116. Juciness of Cow
    • Aging process increases juiciness
    • Age of cow
    • - Younger is juicier
    • Amount of Fat
    • - More= juicier
    • Interior Temperature
    • - The lower the more juice
  117. Roasting or Baking Meat
    • Open pan
    • 325oF
    • Less tender cuts
    • Thermometer placement in the thickest part
  118. Broiling or Panbroiling
    • Used for thin cuts of meat
    • Gas versus electric range
    • Heat will continue
  119. Microwave Cooking
    • Not typical
    • Okay for ground meat
  120. Braising Meat
    Seered in fat then browned and cooked in water
  121. Stewing Meat
    Simmering it covered in water
  122. Pressure Cooker and Meat
    Used for less tender cuts of meat
  123. Variety Meats
    • Heart, kidney, tongue, and tripe are braised or simmered
    • Brain, sweetbreads, and liver are broiled or fried
  124. Frozen Meat
    Lower temperature and increase cooking time
  125. Poultry
    • All domesticated birds that are intended for humans to eat:
    • Chickens
    • Squab (young pigeons)
    • Turkeys
    • Pigeons
    • Ducks
    • Geese
    • Guinea Fowl
  126. Ionizing Radiation
    • Help control and reduce the spread of pathogens in raw poultry and poultry products:
    • • Salmonella
    • –25% of all poultry leaves the plant with this
    • • Campylobacter
    • • Listeria monocytogenes
  127. Young Chicken
    • Broiler-fryer
    • - 9-12 weeks
    • Roaster
    • - 3-5 months
    • Capon
    • - Castrated male less than 8 months
    • Rock Cornish game hen
    • - 5-7 weeks
  128. Older Chicken
    • Baking hen, Stewing hen
    • - Greater than 10 months
  129. Young Turkey
    • Fryer-roaster
    • - 10-12 weeks
  130. Young Hen/Tom
    5-7 months
  131. Ducks
    7-8 weeks
  132. Geese
    Less than 11 weeks
  133. Inspection of Poultry
    • All poultry must be inspected for wholesomeness
    • USDA – FSIS
    • Prepared poultry, such as canned, boned poultry, frozen dinners, pies, and specialty items must be produced
  134. 1968 Wholesome Poultry Products Act
    Requires inspection for sanitary processing and freedom from disease
  135. Fresh Poultry
    Never been held below 26°F
  136. Frozen Poultry
    Held at 0° or below
  137. Hard Chilled
    Held below 26°, but above 0°
  138. Labeling Poultry
    Poultry products must label percentage of absorbed or retained water
  139. Grades of Poultry
    • A, B, C
    • Amount of fat and how it’s distributed
    • Shape of the bird
    • Freedom from pin feathers
    • Skin or flesh blemishes
    • Cuts and bruises
    • Optional and it helps to assure level of quality
    • – Won’t harm you health wise either way
  140. Young Birds
    • Breastbone is pliable
    • Wing offers little resistance
    • Skin is soft and tears easily
  141. Thawing Poultry
    • Under refrigeration
    • Under cold running water
    • In microwave and cook immediately
  142. Cooking Poultry
    • Cook to 165 degrees F throughout
    • If stuffed – stuffing must be cooked to 165 degrees F
  143. Roasting or Baking Poultry
    • Cooking it evenly
    • • Put an aluminum tent on the wings and drumsticks
  144. Braising Poultry
    Brown in a pan in fat then liquid is added and baked
  145. Microwave Cooking of Poultry
    • Older stewing chickens not appropriate
    • Whole bird
    • Skinless
    • - Will dry out
    • - Cook with water or a coating on it
  146. Seafood
    • 18-20% good quality protein
    • Lower in fat and cholesterol than moderately fat beef
    • Fat in fish is highly unsaturated
    • – Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids 30-45%
    • – Eicosapentaenoic acid 8-12%
  147. Vertebrate Fish
    • Flat
    • Round
  148. Mollusks
    • Soft structure that is partially or completely enclosed in a hard shell
    • Univalves- abalone
    • Bivalves- oysters, mussels, clams, scallops
    • Cephalopods- squid and octopus
  149. Crustaceans
    • Covered with a crust like shell, has a segmented body
    • Lobster, crab, shrimp, crawfish
  150. Drawn Fish
    It has had it’s entrails removed
  151. Dressed or Pan-Dressed Fish
    It has been scaled, eviscerated
  152. Steaks-Fish
    The dressed fish is sliced
  153. Single Fillet
    One side of the fish
  154. Butterfly Fillet
    Both sides of the fish
  155. Shellfish
    • Must be live!
    • Lobster should move.
    • Clams and oysters shells should be shut or snap shut if touched
  156. Shrimp
    • Common or white
    • Brown or Brazilian
    • Alaska or California
    • Prawn- large shrimp-like crustacean
    • Designated according to the number required to weigh 1 pound
  157. Oysters
    • Fresh, frozen, canned
    • Fresh should be plump and have a natural creamy color with a clear liquid surrounding
  158. Lobster
    • Northern or Spiny/rock
    • Color
    • - Raw- blueish green
    • - Cooked- red
  159. Crabs
    Blue or dungeness
  160. Fish Roe
    • Eggs from a finfish
    • Parboiled for 2-5 minutes, then dipped in cornmeal/egg/breadcrumb and fried
  161. Caviar
    • Sturgeon roe preserved in brine
    • Used as an appetizer, expensive
  162. Minced Fish Products
    Sold as fish sticks, seafood nuggets and fish loaf
  163. Surimi
    • Made by a special process from mechanically deboned fish flesh
    • Imitation crab
  164. Cured Fish
    Salted cod
  165. Canned Fish
    Tuna, salmon, sardines, crab, clams, lobster
  166. Fresh Finfish
    • Fresh sea smell – NO FISHY odor
    • Firm flesh
    • Tight scales
    • Red gills
    • Bright un-sunken eyes
    • If you press on the body, it shouldn’t leave an indent
  167. Frozen Fish
    Should have no discoloration
  168. FDA and Fish
    • Office of Seafood
    • HACCP system is required
    • Conducts inspections
    • Note: Mercury advisories posted by them
    • Grading based on appearance, uniformity, absence of defects, flavor and odor
  169. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration
    • Under Department of Commerce
    • Provides voluntary seafood inspection and grading program
  170. Toxins
    • Red tide
    • Temperature abuse of certain species
    • Naturally occurring toxins found in fish
  171. Mercury
    • FDA has released a consumer advisory.
    • Shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish are in particular noted.
  172. Finfish
    • Cook until 145 degrees F
    • Fish should flake easily
    • Overcooked fish becomes dry
  173. Functional Beverage
    • Any beverage that has a positive impact on health in addition to it’s normal nutritive values
    • Orange juice with calcium
  174. Fastest Growing Drink Categories
    • Water
    • Drinkable yogurts
    • Alcohol
  175. Consumption of Carbonated Soft Drink
    • Increased considerably over the years
    • - Cheaper, more available
    • Milk consumption has dropped
  176. Ingredients of Carbonated Soft Drinks
    • Caffeine
    • Sugar/High fructose corn syrup
    • • Linked to diabetes
    • High intensity sweeteners
    • Other
  177. Sports Drinks
    • Lower level of carbohydrate
    • – Than sodas
    • – Allows more rapid absorption
    • – Has electrolyte replacement
  178. Fruit Beverages
    • Contain 1.5 to 70 percent juice
    • Note: To be called fruit juice, more than 70% juice is required
  179. Fermentation Process of Alcohol
    • Yeast acts on sugar
    • • Converts it to CO2 and alcohol
    • If liquid is not protected from the air, it will turn into acidic acid producing vinegar
  180. Alcoholic Beverages
    Fermentation is necessary for any type of alcohol to be made, wine, beer, or spirits
  181. Coffee Arabica
    • Grown in Central and South America
    • Fine, full flavor
  182. Coffee Robusta
    • Grown in lower elevations
    • Not as flavorful or acidic
  183. Preparation of Coffee
    • Curing
    • – Pick red beans and dry them for 2-3 weeks
    • Cleaning of beans
    • – Leaves them a green color
    • Blending
    • – With different beans too give different flavors, colors, strengths
    • – Does not have to be blended
    • Roasting
  184. Composition of Coffee
    • Organic acids
    • Volatile substances
    • - Extended heat can remove or destroy desirable aroma and flavor
    • Bitter substances
    • - Boiling extracts more bitter substances
    • - Extended holding
    • Caffeine
  185. Instant Coffee
    Very strong brewed coffee, then dehydrated
  186. Coffee Substitutes
    • Chickaree
    • - Round cereal or root with it added
  187. Storage of Coffee
    • Best when freshly roasted.
    • Ground coffee becomes flat or stale more rapidly than the bean
    • Vacuum packaging is protective
    • – After open, put in an air-tight container in a cool place
  188. Percolator
    • Lose a lot of flavor and aroma
    • Heated water that is forced upward through a tube into a coffee compartment
    • Water filters through the coffee several times
    • – Why you lose flavor and aroma
  189. Vacuum
    • Upper compartment holds coffee
    • Lower compartment holds water
    • Creates vacuum that pulls the water up to the top compartment
    • – Once all water is at the top, it filters back down
    • – Because it only comes into contact once, it keeps more flavor and aroma
  190. Drip & Automatic Drip
    • Extracts less bitter substances
    • Water filters through the coffee into the lower compartment
    • Water only comes into contact with the coffee once
  191. Steeping
    Heating the coffee and water together
  192. Coffee Preparation
    • Water temperature between 190-205°F
    • Glass and stainless steel, make sure it’s clean
    • Soft water gives a better flavor
    • 2 tablespoons for every 6 oz of water
  193. Tea
    • Leaves of camellia sinensis plant, a white-flowered evergreen
    • Grades refer to leaf size not quality
  194. Black Tea
    • Leaves withered
    • Rolled
    • Fermented
  195. Green Tea
    • Steaming leaves
    • Rolling
    • Drying
    • No as strong as black
    • Not fermented
  196. Oolong Tea
    Partially fermented
  197. White Tea
    • Fast dried
    • Contains buds and young tea leaves
    • Not fermented
  198. Composition of Tea
    • Caffeine content
    • –Less than coffee
    • Folacin- helps prevent health defects
    • Iron absorption- decreases it
    • Polyphenolic substances- makes bitter
    • Linolenic acid- some central fatty acids
    • Carotenes- antioxidants
  199. Herbal Tea
    • Have other plants in it
    • Not a true tea
  200. Preparation of Tea
    • Soft water
    • Glass pots
    • Temperatures slightly under boiling
    • - Causes tea to become bitter if use boiling water
  201. Goal of Tea
    Maximum flavor with minimum polyphenol compounds
  202. Iced Tea
    • Brew tea with a larger proportion of tea to water
    • – Ice will dilute the flavor
    • Lengthy infusion not recommended
    • – The longer it’s heated, the bitter it will be
    • Dilute when hot
  203. Cocoa Preparation
    • Fermenting
    • Drying
    • Roasting
    • Cracking- into nibs
    • Grinding
    • - Fat melted, becomes a suspension of cocoa solids in cocoa butter called chocolate liquor
  204. Cocoa
    • Liquid is pumped into presses where cocoa butter is squeezed out
    • Remaining solids are further processed and broken up to form powder
  205. Natural Processed Cocoa
    Beans are removed from cocoa pod then roasted
  206. Dutch Processed Cocoa
    • Nibs treated with alkali
    • Darker color with reddish tinge
    • Mild flavor
  207. Chocolate
    • Ground cocoa liquid is refined
    • - Add fat to it
    • Conched (36 – 72 hours)
    • –Heated at a control temperature with constant stirring
    • Aerated
    • Additional ingredients then added
  208. Bitter Chocolate
    Not less than 50 percent and Not more than 58 percent cocoa fat (butter)
  209. Substituting Cocoa for Chocolate
    • 3 T. cocoa plus 1 T. fat = 1 oz chocolate
    • Cocoa contains more starch
  210. Bloom
    • Grayish white haze
    • May be result of processing methods
    • Tempering to help produce small crystals in it
    • Avoid high temperature storage
    • Incorrect cooling or fluctuating storage temperatures, addition of fats incompatible with cocoa butter
  211. Melting
    • Avoid overheating
    • If heating over water – avoid getting water into the chocolate to avoid seizing of the chocolate
    • Normally use a double boiler
  212. Cocoa Hot Chocolate: Syrup Method
    • 2 tsp to 1 Tbsp Cocoa
    • 2 tsp to 1 Tbsp sugar
    • ¼ cup water
    • Boil all ingredients together then add ¾ cup hot milk
  213. Chocolate Hot Chocolate: Syrup Method
    • 1/3 oz. chocolate, shaved fine
    • 1 to 1 ½ Tbsp sugar
    • 1/3 cup water
  214. Cocoa Hot Chocolate: Paste Method
    • ½ Tbsp cornstarch
    • - Gives more body and helps keep from sinking to the bottom
    • 1/3 cup water
    • 3 Tbsp Cocoa
    • 2 Tbsp Sugar
    • Boil all ingredients together for 1-2 minutes then add 2 cups hot milk
  215. Chocolate Hot Chocolate: Syrup Method
    • 1 oz. chocolate
    • Boil all ingredients together for 1-2 minutes then add 2 cups hot milk
  216. Physical Properties of Sugar
    • Sweetness
    • Hygroscopicity- attracts and holds water
    • Bad when raining
    • Solubility affected by type of sugar and temperature of water
    • Higher the water temperature the easier sugar can dissolve
  217. True Solution
    Dispersion in which ions or molecules no larger than one millimicron are dissolved in a liquid
  218. Unsaturated Solution
    • Can add more
    • Capable of dissolving additional solute like sugar
  219. Saturated Solution
    • Can’t add more solute or sugar at that temperature
    • Will sink to the bottom
  220. Supersaturated Solution
    • Holds more solute or sugar than theoretically can be held at that temperature
    • Have to heat to get more sugar in, then it stays after it’s `
    • cooled
  221. Chemical Reactions of Candy
    • Hydrolysis
    • Degradation
    • Caramelization
    • Maillard Reaction
  222. Hydrolysis of Candy
    • Breaking apart
    • - Disaccharides undergo this when heated
    • Will break into 2 monosaccharides

    • Long, slow heating brings about more hydrolysis than rapid heating for a short time
    • Invert sugar- mixture of fructose and glucose
  223. Degradation of Candy
    • Opening of ring structure to form an aldehyde or ketone
    • Don’t want to overheat sugars
  224. Caramelization of Candy
    • Sugars heated to intense temperatures so that they melt
    • Can be halted by very rapid cooling
    • Add boiling water
    • Cold water will splatter and pop
  225. Maillard Reaction of Candy
    • Important browning reaction
    • Involves condensation of a reducing sugar and an amine
    • – Need protein and sugar together
  226. Crystalline Forms of Sugar
    • Granulated Sugar
    • Powdered Sugar
    • Brown Sugar
    • Cocrystallized sugar
  227. Granulated Sugar
    • Called table sugar
    • Produced from sugar beets and sugar cane (chemically the same from both sources)
    • Raw Sugar (from sugar cane)
  228. Powdered Sugar
    • Machine ground or pulverized from granulated sugar
    • X is used to designate degree of fineness
  229. Brown Sugar
    • Obtained from cane sugar during the late stages of refining
    • Composed of clumps of sucrose crystals coated with a film of molasses
    • The lighter the color, the higher the stage of purification
  230. Cocrystallized Sugar
    • Spontaneous crystallization of a purified supersaturated sugar solution is accomplished by rapid agitation
    • Results in production of aggregates of microsized crystals as cooling proceeds
    • Add a second ingredient and it is incorporated in to the sucrose crystal by spontaneous crystallization
    • Used to make instant products
  231. Corn Syrup
    Use acid and high temps to hydrolyze cornstarch
  232. High Fructose Corn Syrup
    • Use high glucose corn syrup to make this
    • Glucose isomerase
    • Juices, soda, bread
  233. Molasses
    • Residue that remains after sucrose crystals have been removed from juices of cane sugar
    • Blackstrap- more processed, very bitter and dark
    • Good source of calcium
  234. Maple Syrup
    Evaporation of the sap of the sugar maple
  235. Honey
    Contains fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose
  236. Sugar Alcohols
    • Mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol
    • –Any ending in -ol
    • Used to improve bulk, mouthfeel, and texture
    • Does not promote tooth decay
    • Acceptable for diabetics
  237. Boiling Pure Liquids
    Temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure resting on its surface
  238. Boiling Solutions
    Anything that decreases the vapor pressure of a liquid increases its boiling point
  239. Crystalline Candies
    • Have large areas of organized sugar crystals, but crystals are very small in size
    • Made by boiling sugar and water until syrup is concentrated for a crystalline structure to form when cooled
    • Fudge, fondant, divinity
  240. Essential Steps of Crystalline Candies
    • Complete solution of the crystalline sugar
    • Concentration of the sugar to the desirable stage
    • Done through heating and cooling
    • Prevention of crystallization until conditions are favorable
  241. Preparation of Crystalline Candies
    • Supersaturated solution
    • Formation of invert sugar
    • – Hydrolyzing sucrose leaving fructose and glucose
    • – Makes a smoother candy
    • – The higher the temperature of sugar solution, the more concentrated the sugar is, making it firmer
  242. Concentration of Crystalline Candies
    • Thread
    • Soft ball
    • Firm ball
    • Hard ball
    • Soft crack- taffy
    • Hard crack
    • Syrup
    • Fondant, fudge
    • Caramels
    • Marshmallows
    • Taffies
    • Brittle
  243. Crystallization
    • Key factor is controlling the rate of crystallization
    • – If started too soon then it becomes grainy
    • When boiling candy is removed from heat, it is saturated
    • Cooling solution
  244. Controlling Crystalization
    • Presence of sugar crystals
    • Do not disturb
    • When to begin beating
    • – When the correct degree of supersaturated has been met
    • Goal is to get fine, smooth candy
    • – Interfering agents: all fats, chocolate
    • – Corn syrup isn’t technically one, but it won’t form a crystal
  245. Ripening
    • Changes that occur in crystalline candies as they are stored
    • Continual dissolution and recrystallization
    • – Small crystals dissolve and reform large crystals
  246. Evaluation of Crystalline Candies
    • Should hold their shape, but not be hard
    • Mouthfeel
    • – Soft not grainy
    • PROBLEMS
    • Firmness
    • – Temperature too high
    • Rainy days
    • – Sugar absorbs moisture making soupier
    • Not enough beating- large crystals
    • Don’t beat at right time- large crystals
  247. Amorphous Candies
    • Boiled to a higher temperature than crystalline candies
    • Examples
    • –Taffy
    • –Lollipops
    • –Peanut brittle
  248. Crystallization is Prevented By:
    • Cooking to very high temp so that the finished product hardens quickly before crystals can form
    • Adding large amounts of interfering substances
    • Combining these methods
    • Cooking it really high and adding interfering agents
  249. Preparation of Amorphous Candies
    • Key is to not scorch the product
    • Intense heat causes flavor and color changes
  250. Brittles
    • Cooked to a high temp so that crystals can not form
    • Baking soda
    • – Forms CO2 putting bubbles in brittle so it’s easier to bite into
  251. Caramels
    Contain large amounts of interfering agents
  252. Chocolate Dipping
    • Should be of fine quality and contain enough cocoa butter to promote hardening with a smooth glossy finish
    • Success depends on:
    • – Suitable chocolate
    • – Controllable temperature
    • – Avoidance of humidity
    • – Thorough stirring
  253. Defects of Candy
    • Gray or streaked surfaces
    • Excessive humidity
    • Incorrect temperature
    • – Broad base
    • Dipped too high of a temperature
    • Too much of chocolate on it
    • – Sticky spots
    • Didn’t dip thoroughly
  254. Aspartame Equal/Nutrasweet
    • 15 cans of diet soda
    • Not okay for cooking
    • Denatures
    • Made by joining two amino acids and adding a methyl alcohol
    • 180 – 200 times sweeter than sugar
    • Not stable to heat
  255. Saccharin Sweet 'n Low
    • 8.5 Packets
    • Okay for cooking
    • 300 to 500 times as sweet as sugar
    • Stable under extreme processing conditions
    • Bitter aftertaste
  256. Acesulfame K Sunnet/Sweet one
    • 25 cans of diet soda
    • Okay for cooking
    • Derivative of acetoacidic acid
    • Not metabolized in the body and is excreted unchanged
    • 200 times sweeter than sugar
    • Heat stable
  257. Sucralose Splenda
    • 5 cans of diet soda
    • Okay for cooking
    • Addition of chlorine atoms to sucrose
    • 600 times sweeter than sugar
    • Stable under extreme pH conditions and high temperatures
  258. Neotame
    • No products available in the US
    • Okay for cooking
    • 7,000 – 13,000 times sweeter than sugar
    • Stability is similar to aspartame
    • Does not metabolize to phenylalanine
  259. Stevia
    • Naturally sweet herb
    • Approved by the FDA
  260. Protein
    • Form major part of lean human body
    • Made up of amino acids
    • Functions
    • Builds, maintains, prepares muscle tissue
    • Forms enzymes, hormones, anti-bodies,water balance, and pH balance
  261. Amino Acids
    • 20
    • Essential- have to get from diet (9)
    • Nonessential- your body can make it (11)
    • Have similar structure
  262. Transamination
    • How to make the nonessential amino acids
    • “All or none” principle- you must have all amino acids for this to work
    • Too many amino acids and stored as fat
  263. Deamination
    Breaks the amino acid apart for excretion
  264. Animal Protein
    Complete
  265. Plant Protein
    • Incomplete
    • Benefit-less fat, leaner, phytochemicals, fiber, no cholesterol, less saturated fat
  266. Complimentary Protein
    When you eat two foods that join to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acids
  267. Types of Complimentary Proteins
    • Legumes and Grains, nuts, seeds
    • Grains and Legumes
    • Nuts seeds and Legumes
    • Vegetables and Grains, nuts, seeds
    • Corn and Legumes
  268. Textured Soy Protein
    • "Ssoy is a complete protein by definition, HOWEVER in functionality it is not complete”
    • Amino acid profile
    • Good cash crop
    • TSP or TVP
    • Manufacturing
  269. Tofu
    • Soybean equivalent of cheese
    • Manufacturing
    • Firmness- varies from soft to extra firm
    • Storage- should be drained out after a week
    • Texture will be mealy if you freeze
  270. Legumes
    • If you dry them they take 2x as long to cook
    • Can soak over night or speed soak them- bring them to a boil, remove from heat and let sit for 4 hours
  271. Tabouli and Kibbeh
    • Made from:
    • Whole wheat kernels are steamed and then dried and crushed
    • Made from bulgur- whole wheat kernels
  272. Tabouli
    A salad that contains bulgur, onions, parsley, mint, and fresh vegetables
  273. Kibbeh
    Not a vegan product—takes the bulgur, grated onion, and ground lamb and is pounded into a paste
  274. Quorn
    • A myco-protein
    • Part of the mushroom family
    • Meat alternative
  275. Tempeh
    • Fermented food
    • Made by the controlled fermentation of cooked soybeans with a Rhizopus mold (tempeh starter)
    • Has antibiotics in it
  276. Miso
    • Also called bean paste
    • Made of fermented soybean, sometimes with additional ingredients- wheat, rice, barley
  277. Semi-Vegetarian
    Eats dairy products, eggs, chicken, and fish but no other animal flesh
  278. Pesco-Vegetarian
    Eats dairy products, eggs, and fish but no other animal flesh
  279. Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian
    Eats dairy products and eggs but no animal flesh
  280. Lacto-Vegetarian
    Eats dairy products but no animal flesh or eggs
  281. Ovo-Vegetarian
    Eats eggs but no dairy products or animal flesh

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