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What is difference between Mainframes and Supercomputers?
- Mainframes can do multiple jobs very quickly.
- Supercomputers can only do one job very quickly.
*Define Distributes Systems or Open Systems.
Networks of smaller systems built to interact with one another to form a Large System.
*Mainframe Speed is measured in what?
MIPS (millions of instructions per sec)
*Distributed Systems (PC/Servers) measure speed in terms of their processor speed in what unit?
*Define Large Systems.
Collection of multiple smaller systems that together serve a purpose or perform a business function.
List components that make up a Large System.
Datacenter Management, Network Engineering, Client/Server Engineering, Telephony and Call Routing, IT Security, Messaging and Collaboration, Database Systems, ITIL and Process Management.
What is VPN? Used for?
- Virtual Private Network.
- It is a secure connection between two devices on two different networks.
- It is used by businesses to provide a secure way for employees to access the corporate network over the internet.
*State 7 Layer of OSI model in order
- 1. Physical
- 2. Data Link
- 3. Network
- 4. Transport
- 5. Session
- 6. Presentation
- 7. Application
VLAN works on which OSI layer?
Layer 2 Data Link
Routing Table works on which OSI layer?
Layer 3 Network
*Router works on which layer? why?
- Layer 3 Network
- B/c it allows communication between different networks.
*Switch/Bridge works on which layer? why?
- Layer 2 Data Link
- B/c it has intelligence built into it and will direct traffic to a port based on its MAC address.
*Hub works on which layer? why?
- Layer 1 Physical
- B/c it has no intelligence built in.
*What are benefits on layering within a reference model?
- Less Complex
- Standard Interfaces
- Easier to learn
- Easier to develop
- Multivender Interoperability
- Modular Engineering
True/False - In a network, devices have both Logical and Physical addresses.
*What is the Logical Address of a network?
- IP Address
- 32 bit address that is divided into 4 eight bit octets.
What is the IP address used for?
- To route packets from one network to another.
- It is Dynamic.
*What is the Physical Address of a network?
The MAC Address.
*What is the MAC Address?
- Network's physcial address that is burned onto the machine's Network Interface Card (NIC).
- It is Static.
*What are the minimum requirements for network communication?
- IP Address
- Subnet Mask
- Default Gateway
*What is the DHCP?
- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
- It dynamically assigns IP addresses to machines on a network.
*What is DNS?
- Domain Name System
- Protocol used to resolve host names to IP addresses.
*What are the 2 main functions of IP address?
- Route Selection
- Logical Addressing
*Main difference between TCP and UDP (user datagram protocol)?
TCP provides reliable delivery while UDP does not.
Name 2 components of IP Address.
Network and Host components.
*What is the mechanism that is built into Ethernet to allow it to avoid collisions on the network?
- Carrier Sense Multiple-Access with Collision Detection.
State advantages of using IPv6 opposed to IPv4.
- IPv6 supports encryption.
- IPv6 has alot more IP addresses.
*What does a Router and Switch separate?
- Router separates broadcast domains.
- Switch separates collision domains.
Why was release of Macintosh Computer in 1984 significant?
It was the first commercially successful computer to feature a GUI (Graphical User Interface) and a mouse.
*Name some popular LINUX distributions.
- Red Hat
Who created the Linux OS and what year?
Linus Torvalds, 1991
What is the advantage of running Linux opposed to Windows?
Linux is more secure and is less likely to be compromised by viruses or malware.
*State Moore's Law.
The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an Integrated Circuit doubles every two years.
Which version of Window's introduced Microsoft's Active Directory?
Whats the difference between UNIX and Windows OS?
UNIX does a better job of managing users and their processes than does Windows.
What were the first two major OS's to be installed independent of MS DOS?
True or False – In the event of a Windows System crash, one way to potentially recover files from the damaged system is to boot the machine to either MS DOS or Linux, access the file system of the machine and remove important files.
What is the big security advantage of Windows Vista and 7?
*RAID stands for....
Redundant Array of Independent Disks
We use RAID when creating disk arrays because.....
RAID increases performance and provides fault tolerance in the event of a physical disk failure.
Who invente UNIX OS?
- Ken Thompson
- Dennis Ritchie
- at Bell Labs
*What are key characteristics of the Mainframe?
- Centralized Processing as opposed to Distributed Processing.
- Used by multiple users at the same time- true multitasking.
- Ability to do multiple jobs very quickly.
What is the main reason Mainframe still used in business world?
Its ability to solve multiple business problems very quickly with little to no downtime.
*What are reasons that businesses tend to invest in Client/Server or Distributed Systems?
*In general, why is business so interested in the virtualization of their server infrastructure?
- Hardware consolidation – fewer physical servers needed
- Better resource utilization
What type of virtualization is commonly used in SANs?
What were the two types of Hypervisors discussed in class?
Bare Metal and Hosted
*True or False – A Hypervisor emulates computer hardware, allowing multiple Operating Systems to run on a single physical host.
*What are two disadvantages of Virtualization?
- High Initial Investment
- Requires a great deal of redundancy and fault tolerance
*True or False - In Traditional Cloud Computing, the user does NOT own his or her physical infrastructure.
*What is the advantage of a “Private Cloud” to business?
A private cloud allows a business to invest in the architecture and technologies to provide cloud services within the organization without involving a service provider.
What is “Cloud Computing”?
Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid.
*The process of using application software to abstract the operating system, applications, and data from the user's PC is referred to as:
*True or False- A Virtual Private Network can be used to grant telecommuters or remote users access to a company's network.
What is one reason why companies may be slow to adopt virtual environments?
Requires a paradigm shift – It is sometimes difficult to convince people that virtual environments are viable
What is an example of Network Virtualization?
The Virtual LAN or VLAN
What is an inherent risk of running production servers in a Virtual Environment?
If the server that is hosting the Virtual Machines goes down, all machines running on the host Server will be lost as well.
True or False – The SAN is an integral part of a Virtual Server solution because it is through the use of external storage that virtual machines can be moved between physical hosts.
What is the definition of a VLAN?
A VLAN is a logical segregation of a network into individual broadcast domains.
What is the Idea of a “Personal Cloud” and why is it an important concept?
That every piece of data that you might ever need is available at your fingertips from multiple devices (smartphones, laptops, tablets, etc).
What is one of the main risks of Cloud Computing?
The loss of privacy
*We discussed several types of Database Management Systems including:
- Object Oriented
- Object Relational.
*Many advantages of using relational databases including:
*Relational Databases are composed of....
Rows of Information organized into Tables, combined into Databases.
*A query in SQL is written in the following format:
- “Select <something> From <Table> Where <Conditions>”.
- Note that you should always include a “Where” clause to limit your results. This will help keep you from attempting to retrieve potentially enormous amounts of unneeded information from a database.
*A Session Database is
a database type that is used to store web session data for high availability.
*An OLTP Database (On-Line Transactional Processing) facilitates...
data entry and retrieval of transaction processing and is built for Insert/Update performance. An example of a system that would use this is the ATM (automatic teller machine).
A Data Warehouse is
a repository of an organization’s electronically stored data that is sourced from various operational systems and is designed for analysis and reporting.
A Data Mart is
a subset of a Data Warehouse that is used to hold data for a specific business function.
In a Flat File System,
- data is stored in individual files and these files are not linked.
- Problems with using flat files to store data include data redundancy, locking issues, performance issues and limited recoverability.
OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) databases are used for
- Multi-Dimensional Analysis of data.
- This data is typically used for marketing, business process management, budgeting and forecasting, etc. It involves complex analysis diverse data.
Business is concerned with turning raw ____ into _____ that can be used applied to any number of functions – growth, marketing, finance, online sales, etc.
An example of a major application that is based on a Flat File model is the______ messaging system. In contrast to that, ______ is based on the Relational Database model.
- LOTUS NOTES
- MICROSOFT EXCHANGE
Information Security is imperative to insure the following – known as the CIA Triad:
Note that many believe that Authenticity
– the guarantee that the data is genuine - should be added as well.
The Principle of Least Privilege is a key Security Concept that....
that is defined as an individual, program or process that is not granted any more access privilege than is necessary to perform a task.
A Threat is
anything that has potential to cause harm to the information system.
Access to information is controlled through
The attributes of Three Factor Authentication are
- 1. Something you KNOW
- 2. Something you ARE
- 3. Something you HAVE
Your ID and Password are things that you KNOW – this is
Single Factor Authentication
In addition to the first factor, something that you HAVE may be a security fob that generates a pre-determined code or a signed digital certificate. An example of is the RSA SecurID fob. - This along with the first factor is
Two Factor Authentication
The third factor is something that you ARE and examples of this are all biometric such as a finger print, voice or hand print. The most recognized form of this is a retinal scan. – All Three together make up
Three Factor Authentication
CONFIDENTIALITY refers to
the concealment of information and/or resources – the prevention of the disclosure of information to unauthorized individuals or systems.
From the perspective of IT Security, _____ refers to the Trustworthiness of the data – a guarantee that the data was not modified without authorization.
the ability to use the information or resource. (A DENIAL of SERVICE attack targets this)
All viruses or worms attack one or more aspects of the
Keep in mind that the more secure you make a system or device, the ______ it becomes. This is a trade-off and each business must find a ____ between ____ and _____.
- Less Usable
With Respect to IT Security, A RISK is
the LIKELIHOOD that something bad will happen to cause harm to an information system.
A Vulnerability is
a weakness that could be used to endanger or cause harm to an information system.
The purpose of the Principle of Separation of Duties is
to insure that no individual can complete a critical task alone.
Companies use the __________ (or ____) to assess the effectiveness of its security and to determine how to correct any deficiencies found.
Penetration Test or PEN Test
The PEN Test is concerned with answering the following questions: (Name the 3 ques.)
- What can an attacker access and obtain?
- What can an attacker do with what is obtained?
- Would an attack be noticed?
The Traditional, or Analog, phone system is known as the ________. Also known as _________.
- PSTN – The Public Switched Telephone Network.
- POTS – the Plain Old Telephone System.
In call centers, ______ is the method of delivering those calls to the next available or most suitable agent.
Interactive Voice Response (IVR) allows
a computer to detect voice and keypad Inputs and allows customers to access a database based upon entries on the touchtone keypad or through voice recognition.
COMPUTER/TELEPHONY INTEGRATION (CTI) is
technology that links computer systems and telephone systems for call handling, call routing and IVR.
The CTI manages the event flow that is generated by the telephony switch during the life cycle of the call – For example:
- -Call Setup
- -Delivery (ring)
- -Establish (answer)
- -Clear (hang up)
Some characteristics the CTI include the following:
- -provides communication between a telephone and computer
- -enhances call center capabilities
- -manages call switches during life cycle of the call
- -works with ACD or Skills Based Delivery to show status of availability of the agent
Some advantages to Call Routing include:
- -Increased Agent Utilzation
- -Shortened Call Handling Time
- -Shorter Call Queues
The business advantage to using the IVR is
- is that the IVR responds to customer calls with pre-recorded or dynamically played audio to direct users how to proceed through the system.
- It increases the efficiency of a customer’s entry into your network.
Instead of answering calls in the order in which they are received, ____ allows callers to be directed to either the next available or most suitable agent, improving customer service.
Intelligent Call Routing
We discussed two basic Call Routing Strategies
- ACD (Automatic Call Distribution)
- Skills Based Call Routing
With the ACD System, Agents are assigned
- to Queues where the next available agent gets the next incoming call.
- It is difficult to manage these queues to make sure that only agents with the ability to handle the call receive the call.
With SKILL BASED CALL ROUTING,
Agents are assigned to Skills and an agent only receives calls for the skills that they are assigned to.
___ allows data collected from the ___ to be used as input data to query databases with customer information
VoIP– Voice over IP – is
the transmission of Voice and Video over IP Networks
VoIP uses _____ (As opposed to the traditional ______ that we discussed in several classes) to transmit the voice and video data.
- Packet Routing Technology
- Circuit Switched Technology
Voice and Video are broken down into ____ and transmitted over the ______.
Quality of Service or QOS is
one of the main mechanisms in place on VoIP networks.It insures thatvoice and video receive transmission priority on the IP Network by creating queues for the network traffic and prioritizing the data in those queues.
Mechanisms must be put into place on the network to deal with the possible problems that may arise during the transmission of voice and video. These include:
- Delay – taking too long for a voice packet to arrive. The packet is generally discarded if this happens.
- Jitter – Inconsistent delay on the network.
- Packet Loss – Packets arriving out of order or not a tall – Packet Loss Concealment used to handle this
What is the main difference between email and Instant Messaging?
eMail is based on a store and forward model, while Instant Messaging is Real Time
What was the major limitation of the first email system that was discussed in class (The MIT CTSS System)?
Users had to be logged onto the SAME SYSTEM to be able to send and receive messages.
What are the characteristics of a Circuit Switched Network, as described in the Messaging and Collaboration Presentation.
A circuit switched network consists of a dedicated circuit between two endpoints, allowing communication to only one person at a time.
What is the significance of ARPANET?
It was the world’s first Packet Switched network, and the source from which modern email systems were developed.
What are Three main protocols used for email transport?
SMTP, POP3, IMAP
The reasons that business have adopted email include
- -the fact that it eliminates the delay of sending messages through standard postal mail
- -it is easy to use and understand and it helps solve problems of logistics
- -synchronization by allowing communication regardless of physical location.
There are many potential problems or risks associated with email and Instant Messaging that include but are not limited to the following:
- Time Management – People spend significant portions of the day reading and responding to email
- SPAM– The overload of unwanted information
- Real possibility of information duplication – waste of time and space on servers
- Email has been a favorite attack vector for hackers
- Email Spoofing – header manipulated to look like it came from trusted source
- Email Bombing – Denial of Service attack with large volumes of email
- Protection of confidential company and personal informationSarbanes/Oxley And PCI
- Inappropriate Use:
- Sending inappropriate content using corporate messaging systems
Instant Messaging was originally used to
facilitate communication between users on the same machine.
Like email, Instant Messaging pre-dated
the development of the Internet.
The ability to have real-time quick conversations is one of the main reasons that ________ has been adopted in _____.
- Instant Messaging
Collaboration Applications build on the ____________, allowing remote teams to interact while working on projects regardless of their ___________.
- Cloud Computing Model
- physical locations
_______ is a recursive process where two or more people interact and work together to achieve some goal. The ability to bring diverse groups of people together regardless of location is a main driver in business adopting this technology.
Technologies like OLIVE – On-Line Interactive Virtual Environment – are being utilized in business to
facilitate interaction between dispersed teams, conduct training classes and conduct presentations all within a “virtual world.” As we discussed, the use of use of these virtual worlds in business is rapidly defining new levels of collaboration that were previously impossible.
ITIL is the Information Technology Infrastructure Library and its main purpose is to...
provide the business with a way to understand what the IT organization does to support it.
ITIL is concerned with Service Management. Service Management is
a comprehensive model of what the IT organization does, the IT organization does it and the associated costs.
The purpose of IT Service Management is to
manage the services provided by an IT organization to insure that these services provide reliable results to the business.
A Service is an
- activity that makes a Value-Add Statement to the IT Customer.
- It should easy to communicate and explain, include specific cost estimates and have a specific features list.
Who is the most knowledgeable person with regard to the overall objectives, capabilities and operational components of the service?
IT Service Manager
With respect to the ITIL Framework, an ____ is an unplanned interruption of an IT service or the reduction in quality of an IT service, while a ____ is the cause of one or more incidents.
What is a Demming Cycle with respect to ITIL?
- a process that insures that we plan, test and incorporate changes before committing to implementation.
- This is known as the Plan, Do, Check, Act Cycle.
One of the key concepts of datacenter management is the planning for
The purpose of Business Continuity is
to insure that the business’s IT Systems remain available in the event of a disaster.
Change Management is
one of the most important processes that we have in the datacenter. Any change that happens must be tracked and all stake holders notified prior to that change happening. Failure to properly follow change management procedures can lead to unplanned downtime, which can cause incidents as defined in the ITIL class.
We talked about different types of backup power utilized by datacenters, and there were two methods seen in the Allstate datacenter. These two types were...
- Uninterruptable Power Supplies (Battery Backup)
- Diesel Generators.
Datacenters are built with raised floors to
- provide a method of running cable for network and power
- to promote the flow of air for cooling the technology housed in the datacenter.
True/False- One method that some companies use is to employ a “Hot Site” for Disaster Recovery purposes to enable the business’s IT Systems to continue functioning in the event of a problem or disaster at the business’ main datacenter. The company replicates data and systems to the hot site, enabling the site to be.
Two of the most important aspects of Datacenter Operations is efficiently ___ the space and providing adequate ___ to the facility.
- Computer Room Air Conditioning (CRAC) Units were seen at Allstate and were positioned perpendicular to the Hot Aisles, creating a Hot and Cold Aisle system.
True/False- In a Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle System, the CRAC units are positioned perpendicular to the hot aisles. Cool air is drawn in from the cool aisle, and directed out the back of the rack, forming a hot aisle. The hot air rises and is collected by returns at the top of the hot aisle, cooled and then sent out the CRAC units into the cool aisle.
We spoke of two measures of datacenter efficiency in class, name them and describe them.
- Power Usage Efficiency (PUE)
- Datacenter Efficiency (DCE)
- PUE = Total Facility Power/IT Equipment Power. That is, take all of the power required to run the datacenter and divide that by the power required to run only the IT equipment. As that ratio approaches 1, the datacenter gets more efficient.
- DCE = 1/PUE * 100, or 1 divided by the Power Usage Efficiency * 100. So as the DCE Increases toward 100, the datacenter is more efficient. Some people like this metric better because it expresses the efficiency of the datacenter in terms of a percentage.