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Personality disorder clusters
- Cluster A: Odd-eccentric
- Cluster B: Dramatic-emotional
- Cluster C: Anxious-fearful
Cluster A: Odd-Eccentric disorders
- Paranoid Personality Disorder: The essential feature is a pervasive pattern of distrust and suspiciousness. Typically, one interprets the motives of others as intended to harm, exploit, or deceive.
- Schizoid Personality Disorder: These individuals have little interest in others and are typically withdrawn, socially awkward, and aloof. Their interpersonal manner is odd or eccentric.
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder: The primary feature of this disorder is oddness of thinking. Paul Meehl referred to this as "cognitive slippage," suggesting that the normal, logical thought processes slip, resulting in illogical thought and belief that has an odd quality. It is often manifest in magical beliefs that ignore normal rules of cause and effect. These persons may also show a schizoid interpersonal pattern.
Cluster B: Dramatic-Emotional disorders
- Histrionic Personality Disorder: These persons tend toward an excessively emotional and dramatic style, engage in exaggerated attention-seeking and are superficial in relationships. They tend to emphasize manipulative ways of relating, such as seductiveness, appearance, and exaggerated emotion.
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Narcissists are excessively focused on self. They tend to have grand ideas about themselves, need admiration, and lack empathy for others. They act with a sense of entitlement, and have little insight into why others don't give them everything they want. However, this grand sense of self is fragile, masking poor self-esteem.
- Antisocial Personality Disorder: The essential feature is a pervasive disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others. It begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. It is often manifest in criminal behavior, also includes other selfish, damaging behavior, such as lying, impulsivity, extreme irresponsibility, and disregard for safety.
- Borderline Personality Disorder: This disorder involves a pervasive pattern of interpersonal instability, inconsistent self-image, tumultuous emotion, and impulsivity. These individuals often make frantic attempts to avoid abandonment, and vacillate in their mood and the way they feel and act towards others.
Cluster C: Anxious-Fearful disorders
- Avoidant Personality Disorder: The essential features are social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. These persons have an anxious manner, worry easily, and tend to avoid social situations out of fear of rejection.
- Dependent Personality Disorder: There is an excessive need to be taken care of that results in a submissive style and clinging to others. They feel inadequate and focus much of their efforts on eliciting care giving from others. Fear of rejection leads to passivity.
- Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: These persons are preoccupied with detail, control, and perfectionism, at the expense of flexibility and efficiency. They have trouble finishing projects, and often lose the "big picture." The interpersonal manner is often distant, halting, and anxious.
Other Personality Disorders (not yet in the DSM)
- Depressive Personality Disorder: Their mood is predominately cheerless and unhappy. They tend towards depressive thought and worrying, have low self-esteem, frequently feel guilty, and tend to be pessimistic, negative, and critical of others.
- Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder: These persons tend towards negative social attitudes which are expressed in indirect, passive ways. They may feel substantial hostility and anger, but act as if they do not, instead expressing such feelings through chronic lateness, failing to complete important tasks, and blaming others.
DSM criteria for Antisocial personality disorder (the most stuided and best understood personality disorder)
- A. There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three (or more) of the following:
- - failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
- - deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure
- - impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
- - irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults
- - reckless disregard for safety of self or others
- - consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations
- - lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another
- B. The individual is at least age 18 years.
- C. There is evidence of Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15 years.
- D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia or a Manic Episode.
Refers to a personality type reflecting lack of conscience development and excessive focus on one's own desires. Characterized by superficial charm, lack of remorse.
Behavioral inhibition system
Brain circuit in the limbic system that responds to threat signals by ingibiting activity and causing anxiety. Some people may have a dampened BIS, such as antisocial and psychopaths.
Passive avoidance learning
The ability to learn from punishment. Psychopaths don't have this ability.
Psychopaths rate high on scales of sensation-seeking, have a low threshold for boredom, and are prone to engage in risky behaviors of a wide sort.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Defying authority while in childhood
Five-factor model of personality
- Openness - (inventive / curious vs. cautious / conservative). Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.
- Conscientiousness - (efficient / organized vs. easy-going / careless). A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior.
- Extroversion - (outgoing / energetic vs. shy / withdrawn). Energy, positive emotions, urgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
- Agreeableness - (friendly / compassionate vs. competitive / outspoken). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.
- Neuroticism - (sensitive / nervous vs. secure /confident). A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability.
Antisocial personality disorder
Theory of the etiology of APD suggesting psychopaths engage in dangerous or illicit behavior to stimulate the underaroused cerebral cortex in their brains.