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How do we rely on plants?
FOR FOOD, RAW MATERIALS (such as cotton) & MEDICINES
How did farmers develop successful corn, broccoli and cabbage crops?
VIA SELECTIVE BREEDING
What is the disadvantage of vegetative reproduction or cloning in plants?
- CONDITIONS IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT CAN SUDDENLY CHANGE
- LEAVING THE CLONES DOOMED TO EXTINCTION
Which male angiosperm organ produces pollen?
What are the essential features of the pistil (the female organ of the flower)?
STYLE, STIGMA, OVARY
What are the characteristics of flowers pollinated by animals such as bees?
- BRIGHTLY COLORED, PRODUCE NECTAR TO ATTRACT POLLINATORS,
- POLLINATE MORE EFFICIENTLY THAN WIND POLLINATORS
What is the period called when the seed is alive but not growing?
What is the advantage of seed dormancy?
- THE PLANT CAN POSTPONE GERMINATION UNTIL ENVIRONMENTAL
- CONDITIONS ARE IDEAL
What characterizes seeds spread via wind?
THEY ARE LIGHTWEIGHT.
How are seeds dispersed by animals such as raccoons characterized?
BY FLESHY, NUTRITIOUS FRUITS
What is it called when the seed emerges from dormancy and begins to grow?
Which plant hormone stimulates cell elongation and rapid growth in the stem and root tips?
Which part of the plant releases ethylene gas?
What is the effect of ethylene gas?
IT ACCELERATES FRUIT RIPENING.
What is THE plant growth hormone (which acts most effectively on stem & fruit size)?
What phenomenon causes a bean sprout to tilt 60 deg from the vertical towards the
What tropism does ivy climbing up a wall display?
What is the plant responding to when it changes along with the day length or season?
What causes the leaves to change color in the fall/autumn?
- INCREASED PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN (a red pigment) & DECREASED
- PRODUCTION OF CHLOROPHYLL (a green pigment)
What makes up the vascular tissue of plants?
XYLEM & PHLOEM
What causes root pressure?
ACTIVE TRANSPORT OF SOIL IONS INTO THE VASCULAR CYLINDER
What is adhesion?
- THE ATTRACTION OF WATER MOLECULES TO OTHER MOLECULES (such as
Through which plant cells does water move by capillary action?
How would you describe the internal water pressure of guard cells when the stomate is
When do stomata open?
DURING THE DAY IF THE PLANT HAS ENOUGH WATER
Why are stomata found mostly on the underside of the leaf?
WATER LOSS WOULD BE LESS ON THE SHADED SURFACE
What would likely happen if an oak tree’s xylem was destroyed?
- THIS WOULD HAMPER THE PLANT’S ABILITY TO CONDUCT WATER TO THE
What might a thin tree ring indicate?
A YEAR OF DROUGHT
What explains the movement of sugars/sap in a plant?
THE PRESSURE-FLOW HYPOTHESIS
What are the 3 major parts of the pressure-flow hypothesis?
- 1st WATER MOVES FROM THE XYLEM TO THE PHLOEM OF THE PLANT
- 2nd WATER IS NECESSARY FOR SUGARS TO MOVE THROUGH THE PLANT
- 3rd PHLOEM IS ABLE TO MOVE SUGAR IN ANY DIRECTION TO MEET THE
METABOLIC NEEDS OF THE PLANT
Cacti have fat stems and miniscule leaves...how have cactus stems taken over leaf
- THE CACTUS STEMS PRODUCE FOOD BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS (normally this is
- done by leaves)
What is one thing that stems can do that roots cannot?
Which organ of the plant is adapted for photosynthesis?
Where in the leaf does photosynthesis occur?
What is the outer covering of a plant?
Which part of the root, if damaged, would halt root growth?
APICAL MERISTEM See p. 670
What encloses the vascular tissue in the root?