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The study of disease
The study of the cause of a disease
The development of disease
Colonization of the body by pathogenes
An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
The study of the movement and transmission of disease
- Permanenitly colonize host but dont cause disease.
- Type and location of organism all depends on micro enviroment.
- The competition between microbes.
- Normal microbiota protects body against invaders by adjusting different levels.
May be present for days, weeks, or months.
Is the relastionship between normal microbiota and the host
Both the human and microbe benifit
Typically lactic acid producing bacteria ingested to aid digestion and protect intestine from pathogens
One organism benifits at the expense the other (pathogens)
Disease causing microbe, not typically part of normal microbiota.
Take advantage of a weaked immune system to cause disease.
Robert Koch 1877
- First to link particular microbe with a disease.
- Kock's Postulates.
- 1. Same pathogen must be present in every cse of diease.
- 2. Pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture.
- 3. Pathogen from culture must cause same disease in newly inoculated animal.
- 4. Pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animal and must be proven to be original pathogen.
- Not all diseases can be cultured.
- Some pathogens cause many diseases.
- Some pathogens can only cause disease in humans and not in test animals.
A change in body function that is felt by patient and a result of disease.
A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease.
A specific group of signs ans symptoms that accompany a disease
A disease that is spread from one host to another
A disease that is easily spread from one host to another measured on a degree scale
I disease that is not transmitted from on host to another.
Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time
- Fraction of the population having a specific disease at a given time
- Disease that occurs occasionally in a population
Disease constantly present in a population
Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
- Immunity in most of a population
- Vaccination sched. to protect population
Symptoms develope rapidly, common cold
Disease develops slowly, turberculosis
Symptoms between acute and chronic, endocarditis
Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive, shingles
Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body, abscesses
An infection throughout the body, measles
Systemic infection that began as a local infection, tooth infection
Toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes especially bacteria or their toxins
Systemis infections 4
Acute infection that causes the initial illness
Opportunistic infection after a primary infection
No noticeable signs or symptoms, hepatitis A
- Makes body more susceptible to disease
- age, fatige, short urethra, lifestyle
Interval between initial infection and first appearance of symptoms
Short period following incubation with mild diseaase symptoms
Period of illness
Highest severity of disease symptoms, sometimes resulting in death
Period of convalescence
Body returns to previous condition
Continual source of infection
Many have in-apparent infections or latent disease (humans)
Transmission from animal to human (animal) rabies
Environmental reservoir water nad soil
Requires association between infected and suseptible host (person to person)
Spread by fomites (non-living objects)
Transmition via airborne droplets
Transmission by food, water, air, IV fluids, drugs, body fluids
- Any agent (person, animal, or microorganism) that carries and transmits an infectious agent
- Flees, ticks, mosquitoes
Passive transport of pathogens (carried on insect feet)
Vector fufills portion os pathogens life cycle
Are acquired as a result of a hospital stay
Emergin Infectious Diseases
EID disease that is new or changing, showing increase in incidence or a patential to increase
Important for disease control on population
- Disease occurrence
- To whome age, race, sex ect
- Mode of transmission
- Effective methods of control
Showed how disease spread
Proper hand washing tech prevents spreading
Showed improved sanitation decreased the incidence of epidemic
Collection and analysis of data (Snow)
Comparision of a diseased group and a healthy group (nightingale)
- Controlled experiments (Semmelweis)
- test drug effectiveness
Health care workers report specific diseases to local, statem and national officers
Nationally notifiable diseases
Contagious and or deadly diseases, physicians are required to report occurrence
Center of Disease Control and Prevention CDC
Collects and anaylzes epidemiological information in the US
Incidence of a specific notifable disease
Deaths from notifiable diseases
Number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period
Number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time
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