A changing state that is influenced by genetics, behavior and the environment.
Who is considered a mentally healthy adult?
A person who can cope with and adjust to the recurrent stresses of daily living in an acceptable way.
When does a mental illness occur?
When one�s problems are so overwhelming they are unable to carry out ADLs or function independently and develops maladaptive behaviors.
What are the 7 principles of mental health?
Do no harm; accept client as whole; develop trust; explore behaviors and emotions; encourage responsibility; encourage effective adaptation; provide consistency.
What is the responsibility of the care provider in a mental health setting?
To protect clients
What is one of the barriers in recovering from a mental illness?
The social stigma the clients experience
What is the foundation of therapeutic relationships?
What are the three concepts for the development of trust between client and caregiver?
Caring, empathy, and advocacy
When are many clients willing to share themselves?
When they have trust and the caregiver is willing to listen
How can we simply understand the meaning of the clients behavior?
Don�t be afraid to ask the pt why they are behaving a certain way
What is a primary mental health intervention?
What happens when the client assumes responsibility for basic needs?
It helps build self-worth, dignity, and confidence
How can a care provider encourage responsibility?
Give the pt a task
Who is responsible for cooperating and following a plan of care?
What is the principle of acceptance?
Allowing others to be who they are without passing judgement
What is most important when planning therapeutic interventions?
Master the first item before proceeding to more complex steps
What do all mental health clients have in common?
Unsuccessful coping behaviors
What is an example of psychomotor coping behaviors?
Confrontation, fighting; cope directly with the problem
What is an example of cognitive coping behaviors?
Reading, problem-solving methods; neutralize threat by changing meaning of the problem
What is an example of affective coping behaviors?
Groups, suppression; reduce emotional distress but does nothing to solve the problem
What is the main goal of crisis intervention?
Help pts & families by offering immediate emotional support
Why is control important in a crisis?
Without it, the pt can�t be helped to work with problems that triggered the crisis
What is introspection?
Analysis of self
How does one practice professional introspection?
By jotting down questions relating to the care of pts, or anything one would like to know more about
What is personal introspection?
Process of learning who you are
What do we accept when we accept a pt?
The pt as a person, but not the behavior
No matter what the setting or circumstances, what must caregivers be committed to providing?
Competent health care
What does behaviors consist of?
Perceptions, thoughts, feelings and actions
What is self-commitment?
A promise to do one�s best in very situation
What is professional commitment?
Seeking out new knowledge
What is completed in the assessment phase of the nursing process?
Data relating to the client are collected from every possible source
What is completed in the 2nd step of the nursing process?
Each problem is examined and nursing diagnoses and interventions are developed
What takes place during the planning phase of the nursing process?
Short & long term goals and the written care plan is developed
What is objective data?
Data that can be measured and shared
What is subjective data?
Data that relates to the clients� perceptions
Why are physical assessment skills important to the data gathering process?
They are used to gather data, investigate changes in physical conditions, an evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions
How is data documented?
Accurately and just as you see t
When is a physical assessment warranted in a mental health client?
When changes in the client�s condition is noticed
What is the purpose of a physical assessment in the mental health client?
To discover physical problems that can be treated medically
A nurse who is caring for a mentally ill client establishes a supportive and honest relationship with the client and maintains client confidentiality. What principle of mental health care is this an example of?
Develop mutual trust
A mentally ill client begins to argue and hit another client because of a money dispute. What coping behavior is this client using?
After a suicidal client has been appropriately discharged from an inpatient mental health unit, the nurse recommends continued tx with the client�s outpatient psychiatrist. What guideline for crisis intervention is this an example of?
What defines self-awareness?
Consciousness of one�s personality
A nurse who is caring for a depressed client understands the significance of the client�s depression as well as the overwhelming grief and loss issues felt by the client. What is this an example of?
An anxious client refuses to eat with other clients in the dining room. The nurse recognizes the importance of nutrition and offers to serve the client�s meals in the client�s room. What is this an example of?
What research-based practices is a valuable source of stress reduction for health care providers?
What is the ability to clearly see and understand the nature of things?
The nursing (therapeutic) process is designed to support goal-directed care for clients. Which of the following steps is included in the five-step process?
A nurse reviews the pt�s medical record to obtain health info. Which step of the nursing process is this?
What assessment methods assists with the formulation of a nursing diagnosis based on the identification of factors that potentially may threaten a client?
Risk factor assessment
A nurse gathers info about a Spanish pt�s education, culture, and belief system. What assessment method is used?
What components of the health history would be most important to obtain for a client with alcohol dependence?
A male client with Alzheimer�s is asked to remember what he ate for breakfast this morning. What type of memory is being assessed?
To assess a client�s ability to think abstractly, which of the following would be appropriate to ask of the client?
�What does it mean when someone says, �when it rains, it pours.�?�
What is the client�s emotional display of the mood that he or she is experiencing?
What is immediate memory referred to as?
Which memory includes events within the past two weeks?
A nurse is working with three depressed pts in group therapy. She yawns and keeps looking at her watch during the therapy time. Which nontherapeutic communication technique is used?
Failure to listen
A female client wants to discuss her history of sexual abuse as a child. The nurse tells her not to talk about it. Which nontherapeutic communication technique is used?
A suicidal client is talking to a nurse. The client states that he has a plan to kill himself. The nurse asks why he has not already put the plan into action. Which nontherapeutic communication technique is used?
What is disturbed communication?
Unsuccessful interactions that result from an interference in the sending or receiving of messages, inadequate master of the language being used, insufficient information, or no opportunity for feedback
What is transactional analysis?
The process of investigating hat people say and do to each other
What is structural analysis?
The study of the personality
What is the main goal of transactional analysis?
To establish the most open and authentic communication possible between the affective and intellectual components of the personality
What 5 factors influence communication?
Social class, relationships, perceptions, values, and parts of the message
What is verbal communication?
Speaking, writing, the use of language & symbols, and the arrangement of words or phrases
What is nonverbal communication?
Communication expressed as appearance, body motions, use of space, and nonlanguage sounds
What can effective listening do?
Identify hidden messages and agendas, minimize misunderstandings, and clarify messages
Why should the care provider not use the word why in a question?
It requires a response that justifies one�s actions or opinions
What is nontherapeutic communication?
Messages that hinder effective communication
What is listening?
Active process of receiving info and examining reactions to messages received
What is a broad opening?
Encouraging the client to select topics for discussion
What is restating?
Repeating the main thought expressed by the client
What is clarification?
Attempting to put into words vague ideas or unclear thoughts of client; asking client to explain what he means
What is reflection?
Directing back pts ideas, feelings, questions and content
What is humor?
Discharge of energy through comic enjoyment
What is informing?
Skill of information giving
What is focusing?
Questions or statements that help pt expand topic
What is theme identification?
Underlying pt issues or problems that emerge repeatedly during caregiver-client reationships
What is sharing perceptions?
Asking pt to verify caregiver�s understanding of client�s message
What is silence?
Lack of verbal communication for therapeutic reason
What is suggesting?
Presenting alternative ideas for client�s consideration relative to problem solving
What is failure to listen?
Placing own thoughts above client; not being involved in communication
What is failure to explore pts point of view?
Does not ask client to describe abstract words such as pain, angry, sick
What is failure to probe?
Does not seek clarification or validation from client
What is eliciting vague descriptions?
Does not encourage client to explain or expand message
What is giving inadequate answers?
Does not collect enough data to answer pts questions accurately
What is parroting?
Continuous repeating of client�s words
What is following standard forms too closely?
Using a question-and-answer format to elicit specific info
What is being judgmental: giving approval or disapproval, agreeing or disagreeing?
Many responses that tell clients that they must think as you do
What is giving advice?
Telling clients what to do
What is being defensive?
An attempt to protect something or someone
What is challenging?
Inviting or daring client to explain, act or complete
What is giving reassurance?
Messages that negate feelings or areas of concern
What is rejecting?
Refusal to discuss feelings or areas f concern
What is using stereotyped responses?
Using clich�s, popular sayings, or trite expressions
What is speech cluttering?
Rapid, confused delivery of unrhythmic speech patterns
What is aphasia?
Inability to speak
What is dyslexia?
Mixing of letters or syllables in a word
What is trust?
Risk-taking process whereby an individual�s situation depends on the future behavior of another person
What is autonomy?
The ability to direct and control one�s activities and destiny
What is caring?
The energy that allows caregivers to unconditionally accept all people
What is a vital part of the therapeutic relationship?
What does the concept of hope involve?
What is needed for hope to be achievable?
It must be realistic, possible and personally significant
What is empathy?
The ability to understand the emotions, viewpoints and situations of another
What is the affective dimension of hope?
The emotional aspect of hope
What is the affiliative dimension of hope?
Focuses on how hope is related or interwoven; seeking or receiving help
What is the behavioral dimension of hope?
Actions or behaviors that may make the hoped-for situation come true
What is the cognitive dimension of hope?
The process of thinking through and analyzing hope
What is the temporal dimension of hope?
Experience of time as it relates to hope; past, present, future
What is the contextual dimension of hope?
One�s personal life situation as it relates to hope
How does a caregiver develop acceptance?
Accept the person, not the behavior or attitude
What takes place during the preparation phase of the therapeutic relationship?
Goals are to establish a client database and assess your own feelings regarding the client
What is the goal of the orientation phase of the therapeutic relationship?
To build trust and establish the caregiver as significant in the life of the client; caregiver and client agree to work with each other
What is the focus of the working phase of the therapeutic relationship?
To achieve goals in the client-caregiver agreement
What takes place during the termination phase of the therapeutic relationship?
Goals are met
When do steps toward termination begin?
Before the last meeting
How does a caregiver act as a change agent?
By providing an accepting atmosphere that values the contributions of each individual
When are teaching opportunities available in the mental health environment?
From instructing about ADLs to major lifestyle changes
What does the technician focus on in the mental health environment?
How are all care providers like therapists?
They use every opportunity to assist their clients
What environmental problems do mental health pts face?
Lack of privacy, inappropriate meeting place, uncomfortable furniture, lighting or temp
What is countertransferrence?
Inappropriate emotional responses to the client
What is transference?
Client�s emotional response to the caregiver
What is crisis stabilization?
Interventions provided by placing client in 1- or 2-day tx settings where balance is reestablished
What is the goal of crisis therapy?
To help clients successfully cope with crisis
When is the inpatient environment necessary?
When people cannot function sufficiently to satisfy their basic needs
What can flickering lights trigger?
Delusions or hallucinations
What relationship refers to a consciously-directed exchange that is focused on moving the client toward more constructive ways of thinking?
What can light that is too bright cause?
Overstimulation and aggressive behaviors
The ability to share in a client�s life is defined by what term?
What qualities must be communicated to a pt in order to establish a therapeutic relationship?
A female client asks how any children the nurse has, and the nurse answers. The nurse then focuses on the client by asking her how many children she has. What concept is this consistent with?
Therapeutic use of self
What is a regressive client response to the termination of a therapeutic relationship?
Returns to previous maladaptive behavior
Establishing a working caregiver-client relationship is a step in what phase of the therapeutic relationship?
A nurse becomes hostile and angry with a pt who has sexually abused a child. What is this an example of?
A nurse responds empathetically when a depressed client discusses the recent death of his wife. Which dimension of a therapeutic intervention is this an example of?
A certain setting, or environment, designed to help clients replace inappropriate behaviors with more effective personal and psychosocial skills defines which of the following?
A depressed client threatens to kill himself and tells a friend his plan. The client should be admitted to which of the following?
A client is emotionally distraught over an impending divorce and is unable to cope effectively. Which of the following interventions would be most appropriate for this client?
Which of the following is a goal of a therapeutic environment?
A hospitalized client who is paranoid believes that all food served in the hospital is poisoned. An appropriate intervention by the nurse is which of the following?
Allow client to observe other clients eating the same food.
Which of the following is a lower-order need that must be fulfilled before self-esteem needs can be met?
Which of the following is included in a mental health admission assessment?
What is the process of actively interacting with the environment and those persons within it?