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Delay in normal maturity, intellect, cognition, learning, and methods of self-care
Name some examples of dev. disorders (3).
- Mental retardation
- learning disorders
Disruptive Behavior Disorder.
Name an example.
Externalizing or obvious behavior problems that include overactivity, impulsivity, inattention, aggression, noncompliance, etc.
Youths w/ ADHD commonly have learning problems such as what?
Do researchers usually study dev. and disruptive behavior disorders together, or seperate?
Study as separate entities.
Limited dev. disorder
List examples of limited dev. disorders
One area but not many areas of functioning are affected.
- learning disorders
- Aspergers disorders
Pervasive dev. disorder
List examples of this disorder
Interfering w/ ability to communicate with, or function idependently of, others.
3 main features
*All 3 must occur together to be considered MR
1) Poor cognitive dev: less than 70 IQ
2) Adaptive functioning: ability to complete everyday tasks that allow one to be independent.
Language, social interaction, academic, self-care, home living, community, work safety, health..
3) MR disorder must begin before age 18.
Grouping mental retardation in categories.
I: support when needed, moving or seeking a job
L: consistent support, employment training
E: regular, daily support
P: constant, intense support
3 main sets of symptoms.
How many symptoms must a person have to be diagnosed w/ Autism?
- 1) Social interaction: "self" only
- *Do not interact w/ others, versus mental retardation
- 2) Communication: w/ others.
- *Evident of "echolalia" (repeating words)
3) Bizarre behavior patterns
*At least 6-12 symptoms
Do most people with mental retardation have autism?
No. Only 40-70%
Other Pervasive Dev. Dis.
Asperger's disorder. Define.
Similar to autism. SEVERE impairment in social interaction & bizarre behavior patterns.
*Do notgenerally have major deficits in language, cognitive dev. adaptive functioning.
Multiple dev. delays, though many delays are not apparent until a child is at least 5 mos. old.
*Child appears normal for months before developmental delays begin.
Is Rett's disorder largely seen in girls or boys?
Is Autism largely seen in boys or girls?
What are the two disorders that develop AFTER normal growth?
1) Rett's Disorder
2) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
What type of disorder is it?
Poor school achievement in reading, math, or written expression.
*It is a type of LIMITED dev. disorder.
Learning disorders are largely due to what?
Changes in the person's brain.
A list of some specific learning disorders.
Dyslexia: problems reading & spelling
Dysgraphia: disorder of written expression.
Dysnomia: mis-labeling objects.
Dysphasia: disorder of word expression.
Dyspraxia: disorder of fine motor movements.
Dyslalia: trouble saying words.
Percentage of population.
More prominent in boys/girls?
More common among which racial group?
Which of the following is usually not comorbid?
MR, Autism, Asperger's, Learning disorder
What other disorder is learning disorder usually linked with?
List some pervasive dev. disorders.
3) Child disintegrative disorder
What is Fragile X syndrome.
More common in males/females?
X chromosome narrows, breaks, or mutated.
What is PKU?
defective gene must be inherited from both parents.
*The inability to break down the PKU amino acid.
*Excess of this AA can lead to damage of the liver/brain.
Sickle-cell disease. Define.
Which racial group does it effect the most?
Damaged red blood cells, slow blood movement, less oxygen to the body.
Down-syndrome is due to what?
Down is usually followed by what disease at age 40-50?
An extra #21 chromosome, 47 instead of 46 total.
*Usually followed by Alzheimer's disease.
What % does "cultural-familial MR" account for in individuals w/ MR?
Autism & Schizophrenia are more prevelant among which populations?
"Shaking" an infant or child can lead to what consequences?
Death or permanent brain damage.
Name some characteristics of individuals who have Disruptive Behavior Disorder.
Inattention, impulsivity, overactivity, aggression, non-compliance.
What is ADHD?
What is Oppositional defiant disorder?
What is Conduct disorder?
ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, overactivity.
Opp. def. dis: hostility and anger, bullying, etc.
Conduct dis: intense problems of aggression, property destruction, lying and stealing.
Are disruptive disorders more prevelant in boys/girls?
Boys and also COMORBID.
Imbalances of what hormones are present in ADHD (2), and conduct disorder?
ADHD: imbalance of dopamine/norepinephrine.
Conduct dis: serotonin.
Youths w/ disruptive behavior disorders tend to have large/small brain areas?
Severe symptoms of hyperactivity & impulsivity in young children often predict later onset of what disorder?
Which can also lead to what disorder?
Oppositional defiant disorder.
*Leading to Conduct disorder.