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2011-12-12 19:32:14
Biology Review Four Viruses Bacteria

A set of biology review.
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  1. Viruses are considered non-living because:
    • They cannot reproduce on their own.
    • They are not made of cells.
    • They do not carry out cellular processes such as respiration, growth, etc.
    • They can be crystalized.
  2. Pathogen (define)
    Any biological agent that causes a disease.
  3. Virus (define)
    A non-living biological particle that infects cells.
  4. Host Cell (define)
    The cell that the virus infects.
  5. What is the 1st virus discovered, and who discovered it?
    The Tobacco Mosaic Virus, discovered by Wendell Stanley.
  6. Viruses are ____ to ____ the size of bacteria
    Viruses are 1/2 to 1/100 the size of bacteria.
  7. Viruses are measured in _______
    • Nanometers
    • Nanometers are 1 billionth of a meter.
  8. Capsid (define)
    The outer coat of protein protecting a virus.
  9. The four shapes of a virus are:
    • Rod-shaped (helical)
    • Polyhedral
    • Complex/Enveloped
    • Bacteriophage
  10. Lytic Cycle (define)
    The cycle of viral infection, replication, and cell destruction.
  11. Lysogenic Cycle (define)
    The viral genetic information becomes integrated into the host cell DNA and replicates without destroying the cell.
  12. Vaccine
    • An injection of a deactivated virus.
    • Stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies and fight off future infections.
  13. 6 Steps of Lytic Cycle
    • Virus links to host cell.
    • Virus injects genetic material into host cell.
    • Virus's DNA (or RNA) takes over that of the host cell.
    • Building blocks of viruses are made inside the host cell.
    • Building blocks are used to build more viruses inside host cell.
    • The multiple viruses burst the host cell.
  14. Bacterial DNA is contained within the _____.
  15. T/F Both viruses and cells can be contained within a semi-permeable membrane.