Chapter 7 Patho
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Immunologic responses recognized as diseases are:
immediate and delayed hypersensitivity
Which is not a characteristic of hypersensitivity?
prior contact unnecessary to elicit response
When the body produces antibodies against its own tissue, it is :
an autoimmune disease
Which hypersensitivity is caused by poison ivy?
The mechanism of hypersensitivity for drugs is ?
Whichis not an autoimmune disease?
Damage in systemic lupus erythematosus results from teh formation of antigen/antibody complexes mediated by:
the humoral immune system and complement
The classical complement cascade begins with:
antigen/antibody complexes binding to a component of the complement system
An alloimmune disorder is:
Immunodeficiencies occur because of impaired function of :
- B and T cells
- phagocytic cells
An X-linked recessive disorder of immune deficiency involves a deficit of :
Deficiencies in B cell immune responses are suspected when unusual or recurrent severe infections are caused by:
DiGeorge syndrome is a primary immune deficiency caused by
congential lack of thymic tissue
Secondary or aquired immondeficiencies:
- develop after birth
- may be caused by viral infections
- may develop following immunosuppressive therapy
Rejection of a kidney transplant ocurred after 2 weeks. The reaction was because of:
- immune response against donor HLA antigens
- a type 4 hypersensitivity
SCID exhibits:(severe combined immune deficiences)
B cell deficiencies
A positve HIV antibody test signifies that the:
individual is infected with HIV and likely so for life
Which is incorrect regarding AIDS?
The patient will have increased numbers of CD 4 or helper T cells
What is Hypersensitivity?
it is an inappropriate immune response misdirected against the host's own tissures (autoimmunity) or directed against beneficial foreign tissues, such as transfusions or transplants (alloimmunity) or it can be exaggerated responses against enviromental antigens (allergy)
How Hypersensitivity is classified:
- Type 1: IgE mediated (allergies)
- Type 2: Tissue Specific (drug reactions, autoimmunity or blood transfusions)
- Type 3: Immune Complex (systemic lupus)
- Type 4: Cell Mediated (RA, contact dermititis)
Exotoxins versus Endotoxins:
- Bacteria injure cells by producing exotoxins or endotoxins.
- Exotoxins are enzymes that can damage the plasma membranes of host cells or can inactivate exzymes critical for protien synthesis
- Endotoxins activate the inflammatory response and produce a fever
What is Septicemia?
is the proliferation of bacteria in blood. Endotoxins released by blood borne bacteria cause the release of vasoactive enzymes that increase the permeability of blood vessels. Leakage from vessels causes hypotension that can result n septic shock.
What do viruses do?
- may decrease protein synthesis
- disrupt lysosomal membraes and form inclusion bodies where synthesis of viral nucleic acids is occuring
- fuse with host cells to produce giant cells
- alter antigenic properties of the host cell
- transform host cells into cancerous cells
the failure of teh mechanisms of self defense to function in their normal capacity
Congenital or Aquired Immunodeficiency:
- Congenital (primary) are caused by genetic defects that disrupt lymphocyte development
- Aquired (secondary) are secondary to diseases or other physiologic alterations
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