Chapter 9 Patho

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Author:
adnap28
ID:
121732
Filename:
Chapter 9 Patho
Updated:
2011-12-07 22:36:14
Tags:
Cancer
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Description:
Cancer
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  1. Which characterizes cancer cells?
    infilrative growth mode
  2. Which is not a malignant tumor?
    leukemia
  3. Endocrine hormone secretion is increased in ?
    nonencapsulated tumors
  4. Metastasis is :
    the ability to establish a secondary neoplasm at a new site
  5. Carcinoma in situ is :
    • preinvasive
    • a gladular or epithelial lesion
  6. Known routes of metastasis include :
    • continous extension
    • lymphatic spread
    • bloodstream dissemination
  7. Tumor suppressor genes are :
    • normal genes that regulate growth and development
    • genes that produce proteins that inhibit cellular division
  8. The current theory of carcinogenesis is ?
    a sequence is initiation -promotion- progression
  9. Which is not involved in metastasis ?
    initial establishment
  10. Oncogenic viruses are :
    capable of transforming a normal cell into a cancerous cell
  11. The p53 gene:
    • enables cells to cope with DNA damage
    • blcoks the proliferation of cells that have suffered carcinogenic mutations
    • mutations are the most common gentic lesion in human cancer
    • mutation disable an emrgency brake on cell proliferation
  12. Local invasive factors include all except:
    increased cellular adhesions
  13. The sequence of carcinogenesis is :
    ionizing radiation, caretaker gene activity and point mutations
  14. An adenoma is :
    • benign
    • a gladular epithelial neoplasm
  15. What is a benign tumor?
    are usually encapsulated well diffrentiated and do not spread to distant locations
  16. Malignant tumor:
    have more rapid growth rates, specific microscopic alterations, absence of normal tissue organization and no capsule. They invade into blood vessels and lyphatics and have distant spread
  17. Carcinomas:
    arise from epithelial cells
  18. Sacormas:
    arise from connective tissue
  19. How are cancer cells characterized?
    by anaplasia or loss of differentiation and autonomy or independence from normal cellular controls
  20. What are tumor markers?
    are substances (hormones, enzymes, genes, antibodies,antigens) found in blood, spinal fluid, or urine. They are used to screen and identify individuals at high risk for cancer to help diagnose specific types of tumors and follow the clincial course of cancer.
  21. The three main genetic mechanisms have a role in human carcinogensis by:
    • 1. mutation of genes resulting in hyperactivity of growth related gene products such as oncogenes
    • 2. mutation of genes resulting in loss or inactivity of gene products that normally would inhibit grwoth such as tumor suppressor genes
    • 3. mutation of genes resulting in overexpression of products that rprevent normal cell death or apoptosis thus allowing continued grwoth of tumors.

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