Chapter 9 Patho
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Which characterizes cancer cells?
infilrative growth mode
Which is not a malignant tumor?
Endocrine hormone secretion is increased in ?
Metastasis is :
the ability to establish a secondary neoplasm at a new site
Carcinoma in situ is :
- a gladular or epithelial lesion
Known routes of metastasis include :
- continous extension
- lymphatic spread
- bloodstream dissemination
Tumor suppressor genes are :
- normal genes that regulate growth and development
- genes that produce proteins that inhibit cellular division
The current theory of carcinogenesis is ?
a sequence is initiation -promotion- progression
Which is not involved in metastasis ?
Oncogenic viruses are :
capable of transforming a normal cell into a cancerous cell
The p53 gene:
- enables cells to cope with DNA damage
- blcoks the proliferation of cells that have suffered carcinogenic mutations
- mutations are the most common gentic lesion in human cancer
- mutation disable an emrgency brake on cell proliferation
Local invasive factors include all except:
increased cellular adhesions
The sequence of carcinogenesis is :
ionizing radiation, caretaker gene activity and point mutations
An adenoma is :
- a gladular epithelial neoplasm
What is a benign tumor?
are usually encapsulated well diffrentiated and do not spread to distant locations
have more rapid growth rates, specific microscopic alterations, absence of normal tissue organization and no capsule. They invade into blood vessels and lyphatics and have distant spread
arise from epithelial cells
arise from connective tissue
How are cancer cells characterized?
by anaplasia or loss of differentiation and autonomy or independence from normal cellular controls
What are tumor markers?
are substances (hormones, enzymes, genes, antibodies,antigens) found in blood, spinal fluid, or urine. They are used to screen and identify individuals at high risk for cancer to help diagnose specific types of tumors and follow the clincial course of cancer.
The three main genetic mechanisms have a role in human carcinogensis by:
- 1. mutation of genes resulting in hyperactivity of growth related gene products such as oncogenes
- 2. mutation of genes resulting in loss or inactivity of gene products that normally would inhibit grwoth such as tumor suppressor genes
- 3. mutation of genes resulting in overexpression of products that rprevent normal cell death or apoptosis thus allowing continued grwoth of tumors.
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