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Universal Quantifier
A symbol that looks like an upside down A, read as "for all," "for every," "for each," or "for any."

Existential Quantifier
A symbol that looks like a backward E, read as "there exists one," "for at least one," or "for some."

Predicate Wellformed Formulas (wffs)
wffs containing predicates and quantifiers.

Scope
"Grouping symbols" such as parentheses and brackets that identify the section of the wellformed formula (wff) to which the quantifier applies.

Free Variable
A variable that occurs somewhere is a wellformed formula (wff) where it is not part of a quantifier and is not within the scope of a quantifier involving that variable.

Valid
Such as for a wellformed formula (wff) it it is True in all possible interpretations.


