It has been found that there is a deficit found in what neurons with autistic individuals?
are activated during observational learning
Bandura's bobo doll experiment indicated what about how children learn?
They learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishment
Gentile showed that elementary school going children who were exposed to violent games, videos and television expressed increased __________.
A unique and highly emotional moment that can give rise to clear, strong & persistent memory is called?
What are the three stages of memory?
What are the two different processes of encoding information?
In Automatic processing, enormous amounts of information are stored such as what three things:
Committing novel information to memory that requires effort is called...
Effortful learning usually requires ________ or _________ _________.
Ebbinghaus studied rehersal by using what?
TUV YOF GEK XOZ
What are the three different memory effects?
serial position effect
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stmulu and anticipate events is called
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, natural occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth is called?
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response is called?
unconditioned stimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) is called?
conditioned response (CR)
A relativley permanent change in an organisms's behavior due to experience is called?
The behaviorist who belived that we should not study introspection but how organisms respond to stimuli in their environments was?
John B Watson
The diminishing of a conditioned response. Occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced. What is this?
Spontaneous recover is
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
The tendancy, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stinulus to elicit similar responses is called?
In classical conditioning the learned ability to to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response is called?
Which behaviorist used classical conditioning to create advertising campaigns?
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher is called
An operant conditioning experiment that involves a rat inside a box and the rat presses a bar for a food reward. Outside, a measuring devise records the animals accumulated responses. What is this called and who developed it?
The Skinner Box
Developed by BF Skinner
Which behavorist elaborated on Thorndike's law of effect that says rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur and created behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control?
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli sich as food. Any stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response. This describes what?
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as a shock. Any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response. What is this referring to?
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows is called?
Skinner developed _________, a procedure in which reinforcers, such as food, gradually guide an animal's actions toward a desired behavior.
What are the 4 reinforcement schedules?
fixed interval- reinforces a response after certain amount of time passed
fixed ratio- reinforces a response only after a certain # of responses
variable interval- reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
variable ratio- reinforces a response after an unpredictable # of responses
A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake is?
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment is?
What is the neural mechanism involved in learing?
In what order do we process information
external event----->sensory memory----->short term memory----->encoding----->long term memory------>retrieving-----short term memory
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
retention independent of conscious recollection. What is it and where is it processed in the brain?
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. What is it and where is it processed in the brain?
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list is called
serial position effect
Which type of memory is automatically encoded?
When your recall is better for what other people say but poor for a person just before you in line. This is called
We retain information better when our rehersal is distributed over time. This is called
remembering the first items in a list is called
remembering the last items in a list is called
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words is
The grammatical rules in which a sentence is written is called
the automatic organizing of items into familiar, manageable units is called
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices are called?
In language the smallest distinctive sound unit is called? Approximately how many are there?
in languague the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix) is called? Approximately how many are there?
Rosy retrospection is
having a more pleasant memory when we look back on something than it actually was.
We chunk how many pieces of info?
7 + or - 2
An increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation which proides a neural basis for learing and remembering associations is called
long-term potentiation (LTP)
What are the two different types of memory?
This type of memory is involved in taking a multiple choice test.
This type of memory requires no retrieval ques such as when writing an essay.