Module 23-26

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Module 23-26
2011-12-12 23:49:45

Exam 3
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  1. It has been found that there is a deficit found in what neurons with autistic individuals?
    mirror neurons
  2. Mirror neurons
    are activated during observational learning
  3. Bandura's bobo doll experiment indicated what about how children learn?
    They learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishment
  4. Gentile showed that elementary school going children who were exposed to violent games, videos and television expressed increased __________.
  5. A unique and highly emotional moment that can give rise to clear, strong & persistent memory is called?
    Flashbulb Memory
  6. What are the three stages of memory?
    • encoding
    • storage
    • retrieval
  7. What are the two different processes of encoding information?
    • automatic
    • effortful
  8. In Automatic processing, enormous amounts of information are stored such as what three things:
    • space
    • time
    • frequency
  9. Committing novel information to memory that requires effort is called...
    Effortful processing
  10. Effortful learning usually requires ________ or _________ _________.
    • rehersal
    • concious repetition
  11. Ebbinghaus studied rehersal by using what?
    • Nonsense syllables
  12. What are the three different memory effects?
    • Next-in-Line effect
    • spacing effect
    • serial position effect
  13. A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stmulu and anticipate events is called
    Classic Conditioning
  14. In classical conditioning, the unlearned, natural occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth is called?
    Unconditioned response
  15. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response is called?
    unconditioned stimulus (US)
  16. In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) is called?
    conditioned response (CR)
  17. A relativley permanent change in an organisms's behavior due to experience is called?
  18. The behaviorist who belived that we should not study introspection but how organisms respond to stimuli in their environments was?
    John B Watson
  19. The diminishing of a conditioned response. Occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced. What is this?
  20. Spontaneous recover is
    the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
  21. The tendancy, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stinulus to elicit similar responses is called?
    stimulus generalization
  22. In classical conditioning the learned ability to to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned response is called?
    stimulus discrimination
  23. Which behaviorist used classical conditioning to create advertising campaigns?
  24. A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher is called
    operant conditioning
  25. An operant conditioning experiment that involves a rat inside a box and the rat presses a bar for a food reward. Outside, a measuring devise records the animals accumulated responses. What is this called and who developed it?
    • The Skinner Box
    • Developed by BF Skinner
  26. Which behavorist elaborated on Thorndike's law of effect that says rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur and created behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control?
    BF Skinner
  27. Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli sich as food. Any stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response. This describes what?
    Positive reinforcement
  28. Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as a shock. Any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response. What is this referring to?
    Negative reinforcement
  29. An event that decreases the behavior that it follows is called?
  30. Skinner developed _________, a procedure in which reinforcers, such as food, gradually guide an animal's actions toward a desired behavior.
  31. What are the 4 reinforcement schedules?
    • fixed interval- reinforces a response after certain amount of time passed
    • fixed ratio- reinforces a response only after a certain # of responses
    • variable interval- reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
    • variable ratio- reinforces a response after an unpredictable # of responses
  32. A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake is?
    intrinsic motivation
  33. A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment is?
    extrinsic motivation
  34. What is the neural mechanism involved in learing?
    mirror neurons
  35. In what order do we process information
    external event----->sensory memory----->short term memory----->encoding----->long term memory------>retrieving-----short term memory
  36. A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
    iconic memory
  37. A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
    echoic memory
  38. retention independent of conscious recollection. What is it and where is it processed in the brain?
    • implicit memory
    • cerebellum
  39. memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. What is it and where is it processed in the brain?
    • explicit memory
    • hippocampus
  40. Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list is called
    serial position effect
  41. Which type of memory is automatically encoded?
    implicit memory
  42. When your recall is better for what other people say but poor for a person just before you in line. This is called
    Next-In-Line effect
  43. We retain information better when our rehersal is distributed over time. This is called
    spacing effect
  44. remembering the first items in a list is called
    primacy effect
  45. remembering the last items in a list is called
    recency effect
  46. The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words is
    semantic encoding
  47. The grammatical rules in which a sentence is written is called
  48. the automatic organizing of items into familiar, manageable units is called
  49. Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices are called?
  50. In language the smallest distinctive sound unit is called? Approximately how many are there?
    • phoneme
    • 40
  51. in languague the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix) is called? Approximately how many are there?
    • morpheme
    • 100,000
  52. Rosy retrospection is
    having a more pleasant memory when we look back on something than it actually was.
  53. We chunk how many pieces of info?
    7 + or - 2
  54. An increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation which proides a neural basis for learing and remembering associations is called
    long-term potentiation (LTP)
  55. What are the two different types of memory?
    • Recognition Memory
    • Recall Memory
  56. This type of memory is involved in taking a multiple choice test.
    Recognition Memory
  57. This type of memory requires no retrieval ques such as when writing an essay.
    Recall memory