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what are the 4 regions of the brain?
- cerebral hemisphere (cerebrum)
- brain stem : mid brain pons medulla
where is grey matter located?
and what does it contain?
- it is centrally located
- contains nuclei
where is white matter located?
what does it contain?
- externally located
- contains tracts
the ventricles are filled with _______ amd lined with _______.
the 3rd ventricle is in the _________,it connects with the __________ ventricles by the ____________ _________.
- intervetricular foramen
what connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles?
where does the 4th ventricle lie?
and what does it connect to?
- lies in the hind brain
- connects to the central canal and spinal cord
what divides the cerebrum in to lobes?
the sulci and fissures
what are the names of the lobes of the cerebrum?
- frontal lobe
- parietal lobe
- occpital lobe
- temporal lobe
- insular lobe (insula)
what are the sulci?
grooves on the surface of th ecerebral hemispheres "valleys"
what does the central sulcus separate?
frotnal and parietal lobes
what does the parieto-occiptal sulcus separate?
it separates parietal and occiptal lobes
what does the lateral sulcus separate?
the temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobe
what are gyri?
twisted ridges between suci "mountins"
where is the precentral gyrus?
anterior to the central sulcus
where is the postcentral gyrus?
posterior to central sulcus
what are fissures?
deep groves that separate regions of the brain
what does the transverse cerebral fissure separate?
the cerebrum and cerebellum
what does the longitudinal fissure separate?
what are the 3 things the cerebral cortex enable us to do?
- be aware of ourselves, and our sensations
- initiate and control voluntary movements
- communicate remember and understand
what is the home of our conscious mind?
the cerebral cortex
what is the cerebral cortex composed of?
it is approx __% of the brains mass.
what parts are included in the frontal lobe?
- motor cortex
- prefrontal cortex
- Broca's area
what 2 things does the motor cortex contain? and what do they do?
- primary motor cortex :excutes movement
- pre motor cortex: plans movement
what does the prefrontal cortex do?
- preforms cognitive functions
- all aspects of thinking and percieving
- remembering and recalling info
- also related to mood
what does Broca's area do?
what parts does the parietal lobe contain?
and half of Wernicke's area
what does the somasensory coretx contain?
and what does it do?
- contains the primary somatosensory cortex
- which receives general somatic sensory input.
- contains the somatosensory association area
- which integrates general somatic sensory input
- contains half of Wernick's area
- manages and understanding of speech
what does the occipital lobe contain?
the visual cortex
what does the visual cortex contain? and what does it do?
- contains the
- primary visual cortex:which recieves visual sensory input
- contains visual association area: integrates special visual sensory input
what parts does the temporal lobe contain?
- the auditory area
- other half of Wernicke's area
what does the primary auditory cortex do?
what does the auditory association area do?
- receives special auditory sensory input
- integrates special auditory sensory input
where is the insular lobe (insula)?
and what does it do?
- "hidden lobe" deep in the temporal lobe
- function in language and sense of balance
- viseral sensation e.g.: upset tummy full bladder
what does the gustatory cortex do?
receives the input of taste stimuli
wher are tracts found?
in the white matter of the CNS
what is dicussation?
cross over (the rt hemisphere controls the left side of the body
are the ascending and decending tracts motor or sensory?
- ascending: sensory
what do projection axons do?
connect the cortex with the spinal cord
what does the commissural axons do?
connect the 2 hemispheres via the corpus callosum
what does the association axons do?
connects the lobes within one hemisphere there is no decussation
what are basal nuclei?
collections of neuro cell bodies in teh CNS invloved in motor control
what is the diencephalon composed of?
what does it inlcude?
- composed of gray matter
- includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
the thalamus makes up __% of the diencepalon.
t contains a ___ nuclei it relays incoming sensory messages that ____ or _____down signals
the hypothalamus is the main _____ _______ of the body
what are the functions of the hypothalamus?
- controls autonomic nevous sytem
- controls emotional response
- regulates body temp
- regulates hunger and thirst
- controls behavior
- regulates sleep cycle
- controls endocrine system
- formation of memory
what does the epithalamus form and what does it contain?
- forms the roof of the 3rd ventricle
- contains the pineal gland
what does the pineal gland do?
produces melatonin to help regulate the sleep wake cycle
what does the brain stem contain?
- mid brain
- medulla oblongata
what does the cerebrsl aquaduct do?
carries CSF from the 3rd vetricle to teh 4th
what is the corpora quadrigemina/
the largerst nuclei of the CNS
what does the pons contain?
the nuclei of the cranial nerves V, VI, VII
properties of the medulla oblongata?
- continous with the spinal cord
- contains nuclei that influence ANS functions
- contains cranial nerves VIII-XII
- contains visceral centers
whats is included in viseral centers?
- cardiac centers
- respiratory center
- centers for hiccuping sswallowing coughing
what are the functions of the cerebellum/
- smoothes and coordinates body movements
- helps maintain equilibrium
- consists of 3 cerebellar hemispheres
what 3 regions is the cerebellum composed of?
- cerebellar cortex :gray matter
- arbor vitae :internal white matter
- deep cerebellar nuclei: gray matter within the white matter
the cerebellum reveives info:
- on equilibrium
- on current movementsof limbs neck trunk
- from the
- cerebral cortex
what are the cerebellar penduncles?
- thick tracts connecting the ceerebellum to the brain stem
- fibers to and from teh cerebellum are ipsilateral (run to and from teh same side of the body
what protects the brain?
- the skull
- blood brain barrier
what do the meninges do? and what do they contain?
- protect: brain and spinal cord
- contain: CSF
whta is the dura matter?
outtermost layer strongest of the meninges
what does the subarachnoid sace contain?
where is the arachnoid matter located?
beneth the dura matter
what is the pia matter?
innermost layer clings tightly to the surface of the brain
where is CSF formed?
in the choroid plexus of the brain ventricles
what does the blood brain barrier do?
prevents blood bourne toxins from entering the brain
what protects the spinal cord?
what does the spinal cord run through?
the vertebral canal of teh vertebral column
gray matter of the spinal cord and _____ _____, contain clusters of_______ ___ ____ called ______.
- spinal roots
internal gray matter is shaped like the ____ __or a _______/
what does gray commissure contain?
the central canal with CSF
what does the ventral (anterior) horns contain?
cell bodies of motor neurons
what does dorsal (posterior) horns consist of?
what doe white matter of the spinal cord contain?
collections of axons called tracts
what is funiculi made up of?
columns of whitematter wit ascending and decending tracts
what are the 3 funiculi?
- posterior lateral
what is MS?
- autoimmune disease attacks mylein
- not really untertood
- cause weak muscle contraction
- muscle atrophy
what is a contusion?
marked distruction of brsin tissue brusing of the brain
what is a stroke?
- blockage of blood flow to a brain region
- numbness on one side of the body
what is alzheimer's disease?
progressive degenerative disease leading to dementia
what is quadriplegia?
- injury to spinal cord in teh cervical region
- paralysis to 4 limbs
what is parapegia?
injury to spinal cord between T1 and L2 paralysis of lower limbs
what is anencephly?
- no brain missing cerebrum ans cerebellum
- death occurs shortly after death
what is spinal bifida?
- forked spine
- no veterbral lamina
what is cerebral palsy?
- lack of blood flow to fetus damaged cerebral motor cortex
- voluntary muscle poor control
what is parkinsons?
deterioration of the basal nuclei of the brain leads to loss of cells that produce dopamine which leads to poor motor control tremors poor balance
what is huntingtons disease?
- inherited disease
- over stimulation of motor activity
- unitiated or uncontrolled movements
what is tourette's syndrome?