What are the various layers that make up the earth?
The Crust, the Mantle, the Outer Core, and the Inner Core.
What do we call the boundry between the crust and mantle?
What is the approximate age of the earth?
Around 4.5 billion years old
What is the average density of the earth?
5540 kg/m3 or 5.54 g/cm3.
What makes up the lithosphere?
The lithosphere is composed of the hard and brittle outer shell of the Earth consisting of the crust and the uppermost mantle.
How does the Lithosphere relate to asthenosphere?
The lithosphere is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker, hotter, and deeper part of the upper mantle.
What is the nature and significance of the outer core?
Its temperature because the outer core ranges from 4400 °C in the outer regions to 6100 °C near the inner core, because of its high temperature,modeling work has shown that the outer core is a low viscosity fluid (about ten times the viscosity of liquid metals at the surface) that convects turbulently.
Who was Nocholas Steno?
He was a Danish pioneer in both anatomy and geology, where in 1659 he decided not to accept anything simply written in a book, but instead resolving to do research himself.
Who was James hutton?
He was a Scottish geologist, who is considered the father of modern geology. His theories of geology and geologic time also called deep time came to be included in theories which were called plutonism and uniformitarianism.
Who was Charles Darwin
He was an English naturalist, who established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.
Who was Alfred Wegener?
He was a German scientist, geophysicist, and meteorologist.
He is most notable for his theory of continental drift proposed in 1912, which hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth.
What are the three types of unconformities?
Disconformity, Nonconformity and Angular unconformity.
What various properties are used to identify minerals?
Color, Streak, Luster, Flourescence, Chemical Composition, and Hardness.
How would you distinguish quartz from calcite?
Calcite crystals will effervesce in vinegar, quartz will not. Quartz will scratch Calcite, but calcite will not scratch Quartz.
What is the most common type of mineral bonding?
Ionic and Covalent bonding.
How are Igneous rocks formed?
Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground.
How do plutonioc and volcanic rocks differ from each other?
Volcanic igneous rocks form when the magma cools and crystallizes on the surface of the Earth. Plutonic igneous rocks where as the magma crystallizes at depth in the Earth.
What are the four types of plutonic rocks?
Batholiths, dikes, sills, and laccoliths.
What are the six types of volcanic rocks?
Tungsten, tin, uranium, granites, diorites, and gabbros.
What is aa?
Basaltic lava forming very rough jagged masses with a light frothy texture.
What is Pahoehoe?
Basaltic lava forming smooth undulating or ropy masses.
How are Aa and Pahoehoe related?
They are both Basaltic lava forms.
How are Aa and Pahoehoe different from each other?
Aa- has a basaltic lava forming very rough jagged masses, and Pahoehoe has a basaltic lava forming smooth ropy masses
What are the different types of volcanic cones?
Spatter cones, ash cones, tuff cones, and cinder cones.
How are sedimentary rocks formed?
For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn away by wind and water.
What are the various sedimentary rocks?
Quartz, feldspar, rock (lithic) fragments, clay minerals, and mica.
How do you tell the difference between a conglomerate and a breccia?
Breccia is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments of rocks particles that have been lithified. Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments of rock particles that have been lithified.
How are metamorphic rocks formed?
Rocks that have"morphed" into another kind of rock.
What are the three agents of metamorphism?
Heat, pressure, and Lithostatic pressure.
What is the difference between contact and regional metamorphism?
Regional metamorphism is the creation of
metamorphic rock from large geographically significant processes like plate tectonics. Contact metamorphism is the creation of metamorphic rock from the proximity of an existing rock to a heat source provided by a plutonic intrusion.
How do foliated and nonfoliated metamorphic rock differ from each other?
Foliated rock is a product of differential stress that deforms the rock in one plane.
Non-foliated rock does not have planar patterns of strain.
Name at least four foliated rocks?
Metamorphic, igneous, intrusive, and gneisses rocks.
What are thee types of nonfoliated rocks?
Limestone, quartzite, and quartz sandstone.
What are the contour lines?
A function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value. Also the contour line can be found in a mean sea level.
How do parallels and meridians relate to latitude and longitude?
Meridians of longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and are at right angles to the Equator. The Circles parallel to the Equator (lines running east and west) are parallels of latitude.
Distinguish between mechanical and chemical weathering?
Mechanical (physical) weathering is the breakdown of rock into smaller particles due to such factors as freezing and thawing, release of pressure, and water absorption.
Chemical weathering is the dissolution, carbonation, oxidation, or hydrolysis of rock and mineral by chemical means only, mostly from reactions with water or the acids contained in rainwater.
What are the various soil horizons?
Is a layer parallel to the soil surface, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath the soil surface.
What is mass wasting?
Is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity.
Examples of mass wasting is creep, slides, flows, topples, and falls.
Which type of mass wasting typically fails along a curved or rotational surface?
Falls, slides, and flows
How does solifluction relate to climate and mass wasting?
Its a type of mass wasting where waterlogged sediment moves slowly downslope, over impermeable material. It occurs in periglacial environments where melting during the warm season leads to water saturation in the thawed surface material causing a form of downslope "flow" to occur.
Distinguish between porosity and permeability?
Porosity is the amount of void space in a rock or other earth material, in other words, it´s how much water a material can hold.
Permeability refers to how well water flows through a material - that´s controlled by how large the pores are, and how well connected they are.
How does the main water table differ from a perched water table?
A perched water table (or perched aquifer) is an aquifer that occurs above the regional water table, in the vadose zone.
How does zone of aeration, zone of saturation, water table, and capillary fringe relate to each other?
They all contian soil and rock particles that are completely filled with water.
Where does drawdown occur?
In a lake
What is the difference between an aquifer and acquiclude?
Aquifer-is a wet underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, Sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
Aquiclude-Is an impermeable body of rock or stratum of sediment that acts as a barrier to the flow of groundwater.
What is a artesian well?
Its a pumpless water source that uses pipes to allow underground water that is under pressure to rise to the surface.
What are some of the features normally associated with ground water erosion and deposition?
Running water on the surface, minerals that are carried in groundwater, and caves that are underground openings.
What is a oxbow lake?
A crescent shaped lake occupying the abandoned channel of a stream meander that is isolated from the present channel by a meander-cutoff and sedimentation.
What is Natural levee?
Low ridges of flood-deposited sediment formed on either side of a stream channel, which is thin away from the channel.
What is Delta?
What scientist regard as facts.
What is Flood plain?
A broad strip of land built up by sedimentation on either side of a stream channel.
What is the source for much of the beach sand found along the coastline?
Rivers or bluff erosions.
What are Seamounts?
Conical mountian rising, 1000 meters or more above the sea floor.
What are Guyots?
How are Seamounts and Guyots relate to eachother?
Both are 1,000 meters or more above the sea floor.
How are Seamounts and Guyots different?
A seamount is a conical mountian, and a Guyot is a flat-topped seamount.
What are the relationships between the Continental slope, shelf and rise?
They're all continental rise of the Abyssal plain.
What is the difference between a fringing reef, barrier feef, and atoll?
A fringing reef is connected to the shore, the barrier reef is seperated from the shoreline, and atoll is a circular reef surrounding a deeper lagoon.
What is a Desert?
A region with low participation(usaully as less than 25 centimeters per year.)
What are the four types of sand dunes?
Barchin, Parabolic, Transverse, and Longitudinal.
What is a Playa?
A very flat surface underlain by hard, mudcracked clay.
What is a Desert pavement?
A mosaic of pebbles and large stones which accumulate as the finer dust and sand particles are blown away by the wind. Also known as desert crust.
What is (Monadnock) Inselberg?
A mountain or rocky mass that has resisted erosion and stands isolated in an essentially level area.
How does a Alluvinal fan realte to Bajada?
A Alluvina fan is a large fan shaped pile of sediment that is usaully formed at a stream, a Bajada is a broad, gently sloping, depositional surface formed at the base of a mountain.
How does Glacial ice form?
Glaciers form in areas in which snow remains all year and enough snow accumulates over time to eventually transform into ice.
What is Apline glaciation?
Glaciation of a mountainous area.
What is Continental glaciation?
The covering of a large region of a continent by a sheet of glacial ice.
What are the four types of Folds?
Anticline, Syncline, Antiform, and Synform.
What is the difference between a Structural basin and Structursl dome?
A Structural basin has a structure in which the beds dip toward a central point.
A Structural done has a structure in which beds dip away from a central point.
What is the difference between a Joint and a Fault?
A Joint- Is a fracture in bedrock along which essentially no displacement has occured.
A Fault- Is a fracture in bedrock along which movement has taken place.
What are the different types of Faults?
Dip slip, Strike slip, Oblique slip, Listric fault, and Ring fault.
What is the difference between Hanging wall and footwall?
A Hanging wall has a overlying surface, and a Footwall has a underlying surfcace.
What type of fualt is the San Andreas fault?
Its a Strike-slip fault.
What is Strike?
The compass direction of a line formed by the interaction of an inclined plane with a horizontal bed.
What is Dip?
Its the azimuth of the direction the dip as projected to the horizontal , which is 90° off the strike angle.
What is the relationship between Earthqauke focus and its epicenter?
Its the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates.
What is the difference between earthqauke magnitude and intensity?
Magnitude measures the energy released at the source of the earthquake by seismographs.Intensity measures the strength of shaking produced by the earthquake at a certain location.
What is a Body wave?
A seismic wave that travels through Earth's interior.
What is Surface wave?
A seismic wave that travels on Earth's surface.
How do Body wave and Surface wave relate to each other?
They are both Seismic waves.
What is the difference in the energy released between a magnitude 6 and 8 earthqauke?
How does the term Tsunami differ from seiche?
Seiches and seiche-related phenomena have been observed on lakes, reservoirs, swimming pools, bays, harbors and seas.
How are Seiche and Tsunami relate to each other?
While tsunami and seiche events occur infrequently in Puget.
What is a Epicenter?
The point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthqauke.
What is a Seismograph?
Earthqaukes generate seismic waves which can be detected with a sensitive instrument called a seismograph.
What are the types of evidence used to support the plate tectonics theory?
The evidence is when Abraham Ortelius noted that the evidence was the fit between the coastlines of south America and Africa over 400 years aga.
How does Panagea, Laurasia and Gondwanaland relate to Plate Tectonics?
These we are due to the actions of plate tectonics, continental drift and seafloor spreading.
Name the types of Plate Boundries?
Transform, Diverging, Convergent, and Plate boundry zones
How does Subduction zone relate to Plate boundries.
Most Valconeos and Earthqaukes relate to plate boundries
What do we know about changes in the earth's magnetic field?
By studying the oldest-known rocks, we can also
learn about the strength and direction of the ancient magnetic field.
What are the various types of remote sensing?
Spatial, Spectral, Radiometrical, and Temporal resolution.
How does active system differ from passive system and passive indirect system?
Active solar- A system that provides its own energy source.
Passive system- A system that does not provide its own energy source.
Passive Indirect system- A systems that uses heat exchanger that separates the potable water from the fluid, known as the "heat-transfer fluid" (HTF).
What is Direct passive system?
A systems that circulates potable water through the collectors.
What are the origins of oil and coal?
Oil can be found deep within the earth and coal can be found in fresh swamp waters.
What are the types of Petroleum traps?
Structural, Stratigraphic and combination traps.
What is a Ore?
Naturally occuring material that can be profitably mined.
How does a resource differ from a reserve?
Resources- The total amount of of a geologic material.
Reserve- The discovered deposits of a geologic material.
What is the difference between source rock, reservoir rock, and cap rock.
Source rock- A rock containing organic matter.
Reservoir rock- A rock that is sufficiently porous.
Cap rock- Is a harder or more resistant rock type overlying a weaker or less resistant rock type
What are gemstones?
Is a piece of mineral, which are cut and polished form,that is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
What is Direct passive system?
Systems that circulate portable water through the collectors.