Chapter 12 Patho
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Neurons are specialized for the conduction of impulses, whereas neurolgia:
support nerve tissue
There is one way conduction at a synapse because:
only the presynaptic neuron contains neurotransmitters
Which contains the thalamus and hypothalamus
The reticular activating system
Which best describe the spinal cord
- conducts motor impulses from the brain
- conducts sensory impulses to the brain
The autonomic ganglion can be described as
the site of syndapses between visceral efferent neurons
The sympathestic division of the autonomic nervous system
- mobilizes energy in the times of need
- is innervated by cell bodies from T1 through L2
The parasympathetic division of the autonmic nervous system
- conserves and stores energy
- has relatively short postganglionic neurons
What are the divisions of the nervous system ?
- Structural (CNS)
- Peripheral (PNS)
- Functional (Somatic and Autonomic - ANS)
Where is the CNS?
within the brain and spinal cord
Where is the PNS?
it is composed of cranial and spinal nerves which carry impulses tword teh CNS (afferent) and away (efferent) to target organs or skeletal muscles
What is the Neuron?
- it is specialized to transmit and recieve electrical and chemical impulses
- it is divided into unipolar, psuedounipolar, bipolar, and multipolar catergories-according to its structure and particular mechanics of impulse transmission
What is a neuroglail cell do?
provides supportive functions
What is a synapse?
the region between two neurons, which a myonueral juction is the region between the neuron and muscle.
How is a nerve impulse transmitted?
neurotransmitters are responsible for chemical conduction across the synapse, the myoneural junction nerve impulses is regulated redominately by a blaance of inhinitory postsynaptic potentials (ISPS)and excitatory postynaptic potentials, (EPSP), temporal and spatial summation, convergence and divergence
What are the three regions of the brain?
- 1. forebrain
- 2. hindbrain
- 3. midbrain
- allows for concious preception of internal and external stimuli, thought and memory process, and voluntary skeletal muscle control
- 2. precentral gyrus
- 3.Postcentral gyrus
processes incoming sensory data
center for voluntary control of skeletal muscle movements
center of preception
What are the Broca and Wernicke areas?
- Broca is inferior frontal gyrus
- Wenicke is the superior temporal gyrus
- both are major speech centers
allows sampling and comparison of sensory data which are recieved from the periphery and motor impulses of the cerbral hemispheres for the purpose of coordination and refinement of skeletal muscle movements
is the primarily a relay center for motor and sensory tracts as well as a center for auditory and visual reflexes
The makeup of the CNS:
is protected by the scalp,bony cranium, meninges, vertebral column, and CSF.
is formed from blood components in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles and is reabsorbed in the arachnoid villi after circulating through teh brain iand subarachnoid space.
The Circle of Willis:
the paried carotid and vertebral arteries supply blood to the brain and connect to form the circle of Willis. The major branches projecting from the circle of Willis are the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteris. Drainage of teh blood from the brain is accomplished through the venous sinuses and jugular veins.
What is the Blood Brain Barrier?
is privided by tight junctions between teh cells of the brain capillaries and surrounding supporting cells.
Where does teh blood supply to the spinal cord orignate from:
vertebral arteries and branches arising from the aorta
The Peripheral Nervous System:
relays information from teh CNS to muscle and effector organs through cranial and spinal nerve tracts arranged in fascicles
The Autonomic Nervous System:
- is responsible for maintaing a steady state of internal enviroment.
- 1. The Sympathetic responds to stress by mobilizing energy stores and prepares teh body to depend itself
- 2. The Parasympathetic conserves energy and the body resources
- both function more or less at the same time
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