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decrease pain sensations
In the gate control theory of pain
stimulation of large A fibers "close the gates"
Whcih is not a neuromodulator of pain:
Interleukin - 1:
- raises the hypothalmic set point
- is an endogenous pyrogen
- is stimulated by exogenous pyrogens
Increased serum levels of epinephrine increase body temperature by
increasing heat production
In heat stroke
core temperatures increases as the regulatory center fails
Which is involved in fever
- tumor necrosis factor
- elevation of the set point in the hypothalamus
acidosis can develop
Although non-REM and REM sleep are defined by electrical recordings, they are charaterized by physiologic events. Which does not occur?
During non-REM, levels of coritcosteriods increase
disrupts both vestibular and hearing functions
Acute otitis media :
displays a tympanic membrane progressing from erythema to opaqueness with bulging
Age-related macular degeneration:
exhibits retinal detachment and loss of photoreceptors
is the contant,involuntary movement of the eyeball caused by ear distrubances
- is lack of breathing during sleep
- can result from airway obsturction during sleep
Individiauls affected by sleep apnea may experience
- pulmonary hypertension
What is Pain:
is is a complex phenomenon composed of sensory exeriences and emotion and cognition ad motivations
What are the portions of the nervous system responsible for the sensation and perception of pain?
- 1. Afferent Pathways
- 2. The Central Nervous System
- 3. Efferent Pathways
What composes of the Afferent Pathways:
Alpha and C -fibers, dorsal horn of the spinal column, and the afferent neurons in the spinothalamic tract
Efferent Pathways compose of :
they are from the ventromedial thalamus and periaqueductal gray are responsible for modulation or inhibition of affferent pain signals.
Specific Theory of Pain:
Intensity of pain is directly related to teh degree of associated tissue injury
The Neuromatrix theory of pain:
proposes that chronic pain is related to multidimensional inputs triggered from the perihery or originating indepently within the brain
What are Modulators?
- Substances that stimulate pain recpetors (SUBSTANCE P)
- substances that suppress pain (norepinephrine or epinephrine)
What are the different types of acute pain?
- 1. Somatic (superficial)
- 2. Visceral (internal)
- 3. Referred (present in area distant from origin)
Define Chronic Pain:
is peristent pain lasting at least 3to 6 months and may be related to inflammation or injury to the nervous system or chronic inflammation.
is achieved through precise balancing of heat production, heat conservation and heat loss.
- can produce nerve damage, coagulation of cell protiens, and death.
- Heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps
increases the viscosity of the blood, slows blood flow through microcirrculation, fascilitates blood coagulation, stimulates profound vasoconstriction.
REM versus non-REM sleep:
REM sleep is controlled by mechanisms in the pons and mesencephalon. Non-REM accounts for mos tof the sleep time and is controlled by relase of inhinitory signals of the hypothalamus.
What happens in non-REM sleep?
- growth processes