Chapter 13

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  1. Endorphins:
    decrease pain sensations
  2. In the gate control theory of pain
    stimulation of large A fibers "close the gates"
  3. Whcih is not a neuromodulator of pain:
  4. Interleukin - 1:
    • raises the hypothalmic set point
    • is an endogenous pyrogen
    • is stimulated by exogenous pyrogens
  5. Increased serum levels of epinephrine increase body temperature by
    increasing heat production
  6. In heat stroke
    core temperatures increases as the regulatory center fails
  7. Which is involved in fever
    • tumor necrosis factor
    • endotoxins
    • elevation of the set point in the hypothalamus
  8. In hypothermia
    acidosis can develop
  9. Although non-REM and REM sleep are defined by electrical recordings, they are charaterized by physiologic events. Which does not occur?
    During non-REM, levels of coritcosteriods increase
  10. Meniere disease:
    disrupts both vestibular and hearing functions
  11. Acute otitis media :
    displays a tympanic membrane progressing from erythema to opaqueness with bulging
  12. Age-related macular degeneration:
    exhibits retinal detachment and loss of photoreceptors
  13. Vesitibular nystagmus:
    is the contant,involuntary movement of the eyeball caused by ear distrubances
  14. Sleep apnea:
    • is lack of breathing during sleep
    • can result from airway obsturction during sleep
  15. Individiauls affected by sleep apnea may experience
    • polycythemia
    • cyanosis
    • pulmonary hypertension
  16. What is Pain:
    is is a complex phenomenon composed of sensory exeriences and emotion and cognition ad motivations
  17. What are the portions of the nervous system responsible for the sensation and perception of pain?
    • 1. Afferent Pathways
    • 2. The Central Nervous System
    • 3. Efferent Pathways
  18. What composes of the Afferent Pathways:
    Alpha and C -fibers, dorsal horn of the spinal column, and the afferent neurons in the spinothalamic tract
  19. Efferent Pathways compose of :
    they are from the ventromedial thalamus and periaqueductal gray are responsible for modulation or inhibition of affferent pain signals.
  20. Specific Theory of Pain:
    Intensity of pain is directly related to teh degree of associated tissue injury
  21. The Neuromatrix theory of pain:
    proposes that chronic pain is related to multidimensional inputs triggered from the perihery or originating indepently within the brain
  22. What are Modulators?
    • Substances that stimulate pain recpetors (SUBSTANCE P)
    • substances that suppress pain (norepinephrine or epinephrine)
  23. What are the different types of acute pain?
    • 1. Somatic (superficial)
    • 2. Visceral (internal)
    • 3. Referred (present in area distant from origin)
  24. Define Chronic Pain:
    is peristent pain lasting at least 3to 6 months and may be related to inflammation or injury to the nervous system or chronic inflammation.
  25. Temperature regulations:
    is achieved through precise balancing of heat production, heat conservation and heat loss.
  26. Hypethermia:
    • can produce nerve damage, coagulation of cell protiens, and death.
    • Heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps
  27. Hypothermia
    increases the viscosity of the blood, slows blood flow through microcirrculation, fascilitates blood coagulation, stimulates profound vasoconstriction.
  28. REM versus non-REM sleep:
    REM sleep is controlled by mechanisms in the pons and mesencephalon. Non-REM accounts for mos tof the sleep time and is controlled by relase of inhinitory signals of the hypothalamus.
  29. What happens in non-REM sleep?
    • resorative
    • reparative
    • growth processes
Card Set:
Chapter 13
2011-12-08 05:26:48
Pain Temp Sleep

Pain, Sleep and Temp
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