charismatic tribal leaders who led the Israelites 13th - 11th century BCE. Ex. Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, and Samson
The Ark of the Covenant
shrine in which the stone tablets from Mt. Sinai are held
Alexander the Great
Greek commander who conquered the Persian Empire including Judea and Egypt. 334-324 BCE
destroyed the first Jewish Temple in 586 BCE
destroyed the second Jewish Temple in 70 CE; sent the Jews into Diaspora
Jewish Biblical holidays
holidays for which observance is mandated in the Torah (Pesach, Shavu'ot, Sukkot, Rosh Hashanna, and Yom Kimppur)
Days of Awe
Rosh Hashanna and Yom Kippur
Jewish Rabbinic holidays
significant moments that rabbis have determined are worth of observance
commemorates experiences of the Hebrews in Egypt, and their liberation (exodus) from Egypt
Festival to retell the story of Exodus - directions found in the Haggadah. Seder Meal question: "Why is this night different from all other nights?"
"the bread of affliction" unleavened bread eaten during Passover
Hebrew word for "weeks" AKA "Festival of Weeks/the First Fruits/ the Giving of Our Torah." Commemorates the giving of the Torah on Mt. Sinai
Commemorates the experience of living/wandering in the desert for 40 years. Jews were dwelling in temporary shelters, "booths." Celebration of God's faithfulness and provision
"Booth"- temporary shelter built for the week of Sukkot. Families often gather and eat meals in their Sukkah
"Rejoicing in the Torah" - marks the end, and the beginning of the annual cycle of weekly Torah readings. Celebrated on Tishri 23
"head of the year" - beginning of the Jewish new year, the Day of Judgment. Time for introspection, confession, and admitting mistakes of the past year, planning changes for the new year.
Ram's horn that is blown on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. A call to repentance.
Day of Attonement- day of humility, prayer, and conviction, for sins committed by oneself, the community, and humanity as a whole
9th of Av
"the Saddest Day in Jewish History" On this day both the First and Second Temples were destroyed (655 years apart); the Bar Kokhba revolt failed; the First crusade in 1095; Jews were expelled from England in 1290; Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492
The Fast of Esther
Commermorates Esther's three day fast before the king of Persia not to massacre the Jews
"lottery"celebrates the saving of the Jews from Haman's plan. King accepted Esther's plea and Haman was put to death
2nd Temple Period
Time between construction and the destruction of the second temple (516 BCE - 70 CE)
Seleucid Greek Emperor bent on wiping out the Jewish culture in 167 BCE
Maccabean Rebellion/ Hasmonean Revolt
Jewish revolt against the assimilation of the Hellenistic Jews and the oppression of the Jewish people by the Seleucid Greek in 167-165 BCE
celebrates the re-dedication of the Temple after Maccabean victory against the Greeks. One day's oil burned for eight days.
"fit"describing Jewish dietary or "kosher" laws.
5 books of the Torah
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
If you don't know this you are a loser
Hebrew root for verb "to walk" - concerns both ethical and ritual law
interpretive work on halakhah, composed in six books organized by subject, closed in 200 CE
"to seek" in Hebrew, a method of commentary and Holy Debate about scriptures
title that is considered saintly, such as a spiritual master or rebbe. Means righteousness
Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible
the tool used to keep their place reading the Torah instead of finger
a mystical movement in reaction to the academicism of rabbinical Judaism
4 Major Denominations in Judaism
Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, Reconstructionist
Understand the Torah to have been given by God on Mt. Sinai. Believe that Written Torah is accompanied by the Oral Torah. Orthodox Jews seek to fulfill all the mitzvoth. Non-egalitarian in worship practices: no homo, no ordain women, no women in leadership roles...(Note from Prof. Wallins: orthodox movement is considering the option of granting learned women titles and allowing them to serve as scholars/leaders)
seek to "conserve" the tradition, a middle ground between Orthodox and Reform Jews. Endorse "tradition and change" Halakha is constantly being changed to meet new historical realities: the halakha is binding yet leniency is accepted in contemporary life
Full participation in the world while maintaining a Jewish identity. Stresses individual autonomy and educated choice. Ethical living and social action and purpose of religion is to help Jews lead moral lives. Membership is completely egalitarian, full active participation of women and LGBT Jews to ordination in rabbinate and lay leaders
Movement begun in 1960s. I. Epstein instigated the new movement based on Kaplan's teaching. Judaism as an evolving religious civilization which every generation "reconstruct" Judaism according to their context to remain vibrant and engaged. Endorses the community as the locus of authority aout decisions on religious practice. Majority of Reconstructionists do not believe in revelation. Jewish law is seen as "folkways" rather than "law"
"to cease" in Hebrew, day of rest, from Friday evening to Saturday at sundown
false accusation that Jews murder children to use their blood for religious rituals. Started 11th century till today
government sanctioned attack against a Jewish population
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
fictional record of a meeting of Jewish elders written by a Russian man that says Jews are trying to take over the world
"The Final Solution"
Nazi goal of exterminating the Jews after realizing deportation and labor camps would not be enough to cleanse the country of Jews
Hebrew noun meaning "commandment"
Every act of ___ is an act of _____
"wrestle with God"
New Testament Canon
27 books: 4 gospels, 1 history of the early church, 13 letters of Paul or Pauline Tradition, other canonical witnesses
a political term indicating a person who is expected to reinstate the Davidic monarchy and bring peace to the world
Three main types of Judaism during Jesus' time
Pharisees - emphasizes observance of the Toral for all
Sadducees - comprise the priestly class and emphasize Temple worship
Essenes - strictly upheld purity laws and living in Qumran
refers to the church, Paul insists is not just the Jews, but also the Gentiles
a way of life which people strive for perfection by separating from society and passing their days in prayer and study
theology concerned with the end time, judgment, and afterlife
form of Protestantism that emerged in the early 20th century US reaction to modern influences on biblical interpretation
The five fundamentals
1. inerrancy of the biblical scriptures
2. the liternal nature of biblical stories, Christ's miracles and creation
3. the virgin birth of Jesus
4. bodily resurrection of Jesus
5. blood atonement of Jesus on the cross
born during second Temple Judaism around 4 BCE, Son of God, killed for speaking out against the abuses of the Roman authorities, Muslis believe Jesus was a prophet and a messenger
persecuted Jesus's followers, until he converted to the Jesus movement. Traveled around Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy preaching, starting churches, writing letters of spritual guidance, exhortation, and encouragement to Gentile churches.
The Great Schism
formal divide of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church in 1054 CE
The Papal Schism
split within the Catholic Church from 1378 - 1417 when two different men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. The church was reunited with the Council of Constance in 1414, and excommunicating the Avignon pope
The Protestant Reformation
16th cen reform movement led to new denominations away from the Roman Catholic Church. Begun with Martin Luther in 1517
Kierkegaard's "teleological suspension of the ethical"
God's will transcends human notions of "ethical" so a suspension of ethics is required in order to achieve some higher end. Ex. Abraham was required to ignore or suspend his ethical laws in order to do God's will
form of government in which the centers of power take from the margins to sustain and enrich themselves. Wellman argued that this injustice requires justification to quell guilt and that institutionalized religions to do the work of legitimation
understanding of the human being in reltationship to self, other, and the divine
understanding of reality, the features of existence
understanding of what constitutes knowledge; the sources and significance of what we know; how we know what we know, and why it matters.
understanding of what is wrong (sin, evil, etc)
solution to the problematic, salvation
body part of a saint or an object associated with a saint. Relics are considered spiritually powerful.
Baal Shem Tov
(1698-1760) The founder of Hasidic Judaism. Emphasized the introduction of spirituality into all aspects of life
The Greek word for sacrificial ritual which the whole animal is burnt up. Then applied to genocide of six million Jews by the Nazi party in WWII
Hebrew word meaning "whirlwind" term for the genocide of million Jews by the Nazi party. "holocaust" falsely implies that the genocide was a religious ritual and that it destroyed in the Jewish people
Political movement to establish a Jewish state. Accomplished on May 14, 1948
(1860-1904) Austrian Jewish journalist who founded the First Zionist Conference and is considered the father of Zionism
The Dreyfus Affair
Scandal of the 1890's and 1900's surrounding the false accusation and conviction for teason of Alfred Dreyfus. The anti-semitic treatment of a wealthy, assimilated Jew convinced many that Jews would never be safe from persecution in Europe
Hebrew for "teaching." Law in Judaism. Consists of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. Handed down by God to Moses at Mt. Sinai
oral tradition given to Moses by God that was not written in the first five books. Oral Toral was the interpretative tradition of the Law, written down in the Mishnah and other Rabbinic wors
Along with the Tanakh, a central text of Judaism, consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara. Two versions of the Talmud: the Palestinian (4th cen CE) and Babylonian Talmud (500 CE)
Rabbinical commentary on the Mishnah. One of two main parts of the Talmud
name for the Hebrew Bible. Acronym for Torah (law), Nevi'im (prophets), and Ketuvim (writings)
AKA Galut, the dispersion of the Jewish people outside of Israel. Began with the Babylonian captivity, but intensified after the Great Revolt (73CE) and Bar Kokhba Revolt (135 CE)
originating in the Second Temple Period. Rising to dominance after the destruction of the Temple and the end of sacrificial system. The Rabbis became the leaders of the Diaspora communities
"master" a Jewish leader who is learned in the written and oral Torah. Like a preacher and counselor
Greek for "assembly" a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have been the central spaces for Jewish worship since diaspora, replacing the temple
The Jewish cultural group descended from medieval Jewish communities in Germany. They make up about 80 percent of the Jewish population. Speak Yiddish
The Jewish cultural group descended from medieval Jewish communities in Spain. Expelled in the 15th cen after the Christian reconquest. Immigrated elsewhere in Europe and into the Ottoman Empire
The Jewish Emancipation
The movement for full legal rights and citizenship for Jewish people in European States in 18th and 19th cen.
"Enumerations" The ten attributes of emanations of God, that represent God's self-revelation in kabbalah
"received" the Jewish esoteric tradition about the composition of the divine being and its relationship with humanity. Arose in 12 cen Spain but earliest text claimed to be hundreds of years old
The most important book of the kabbalah tradition. Written by Moses de Leon.
In kabbalah, the infinite being of God, from which the ten sefirot emanate
The dwelling of God among humans. the lowest of the ten sefirot, which is in exile from the upper sefirot, causing Israel's exile. The Kabbalist is seen as a servant of the Shekhinah
neoplatonic concept of "God-working" The kabbalist seeks to repair the Godhead by bringing balance to the sefirot
Most important prayer in Judaism, recited twice a day. First verse: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord in one."
Traditional qualifications to be a kabbalist
Rabbi, mastered the Torah and Talmud, over forty, male, married
Christian magical practices that began in teh Renaissance that took aspects of kabbalah and Jewish traditions and combined them with alchemy and hermeticism
(1534-1572) The mystic from Galilee who redefined kabbalah and universalized it for all Jews by emphasizing tikkun olam
The repair of the world. tikkun is the repair of the sefirot. The Messiah will return only when tikkun is achieved
Spiritual enlightenment through unity with the divine or dissolution of the self. Aspect of many religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
The Marks of a Mystic
Christ Consciousness, Christ Principle, Christ Path, Christ Power