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Marked by pase of change explosion. Art and symbolism increase, especially in Magdalenian
"Things change" Period between end of pleistocene and begining of farming. Big game hunting decreases from extinction and new niches (climate driven). Changes in long standing hunter/gatherer behavior (mobile, small group, flexible). Extension and intensification of Upper Paleolithic trends except art goes down. Start of Holocene
- Archaic Period
- Later Stone Age
Still hunter/gathering while others are in Mesolithic
New World and Sub-Saharan Africa
Mesolithic Climate Change
18kya-Glacial advances halt. Climate begins to slowly warm with 1000 year cold snap before rapidly warming (12F in 50 years). Sea levels rise>new niches for food gathering>big game hunting down>changes hunter/gatherer behavior
Increase food extraction from environment (nuts/cereal) through sickles/harvesting tools. Use less territory. Increase in sedentism, cemeteries, technology, material culture, status differentiation, warfare, elaborate burials
- Provide identification and claim to land
- More elaborate burials in Mesolithic
Baskets, grinding stones, nets, weirs (fishing trap), traps, snares, storage pits, dry/smoke racks, pottery!
- Earliest-China 18-13kya
- Uses-Boil foods, store
- Mobile, small, move frequently>little material culture, mostly egalitarian, exploit large resources, large territories
- Size restricted by resources, which are unpredictable>sharing norm>decreases elaborate items, no storage>immidiate consumption
More sedentary, larger in size, permanent settlements, more material culture, non egalitarian, consume small resources: fish, nuts, cereal, which produce lots of offspring>predictable, storage
Decreases sharing>ownership, private property>"accumulators">power>status differentiation
- After~12kya-Final stage of stone age
- Domestication of food. Food production replaces foraging as dominant mode of substinence. Originally defined by ground stone tools/pottery, which show food production. However it is now known that hunter/gatherers had pots.
Time of Meso/Neolithic
Mesolithic is immidiately after Pleistocene, but end is different across world depending on when farming started i.e. Neolithic started
Childe-Equated period with industrial revolution due to behavioral change/change in social structures. More of a process (with rapid spread!) than event. Originally thought to have originated in the fertile crescent and rapidly spread, but now thought six independent centers.
Farming is the worst mistake in human history?
Diamond-lead to starvation, warfare, and tyranny. Farming is less nutricious, crop failure is risky>starvation, clumping>disease, brings class division, sex division. False that it produces more art. Pros: feed more people...but they're malnourished and create more material culture
- Artificial Selection-biological process of changing the genetic and physical characteristics of plants and animals as they become dependent on humans for reproductive success (Frachetti)
- Causes the Neolithic
Progressive Postition on Farming
Easier lives, more time, more art (more good)
- Accidental beer invention>want more>grow barley>farming
- Gordon Childe
- "Propinquity Theory"
- Climate change>oases>close proximity to animals>domestication
- Carl Sauer
- Farming is too risky to try if food is scarce>more sedentary hunter/gatherer experiment with farming because they're already well off
- Mark Cohen
- Increase in population>forced to farm to feed
Marginal Habitat Hypothesis
- Increase in population>can't feed themselves>split from water source, coupled with climate change>took plants and animals with them to survive
Co Evolution Theory
- David Rindos
- Standing relation with animals>unintentional and natural consequence
- Barbara Bender
- Hunter/gatherers setttle>more complex>status differentiaion>new social obligations>increase food getting to maintain social structure
None lived in state-level society. Now all live under some form of state government.
Full fledged farmers. Villages of a few hundred, who are all related or tied in some way. All work fields and posess same required skills and knowledge. Adult males make most decisions. Minor trade between autonomous and self-sufficient villages: flint, obsidian, mates.
State Level Society
5kya- Cities with thousands of people, who are in different social levels, depending on others, without sharing same knowledge or time--having specialization, state religion, stratification into 3 levels of control--obliged to serve in army, build public works, pay tribute and taxes to elite.
3 Levels of Control (State)
Archaeological Evidence for State Level Societies
Monumental works, dense population density, record keeping, uniform standard of measurement: ex all pots are same, 3 different social centers
- "Civilization and the Primitive"
- Primitive is romantacized (good)
- Civilization is bad
Guns Germs and Steel
Jared Diamond- "Why you white people have so much cargo, and we New Guineans have so little?" Papua New Guinea, seeking roots of inequality back to a time when all were equal. Village discovered in Middle East that emerged at end of drought with grain storage (wheat and barley). Most likely had to grow their own food, live near permanent water, and artificially select (domesticate)
- Innovations of "civilization": writing (3000 BC), urbanism, domestication
- Eurasian nomadism's impact: global transition to agriculture, nomadic pastoralism in Eurasia, origin of horses chariots and noodles
- "ancient state level societies on the cusp of civilization and their impact"
World Population Growth
- (Frachetti) 10,000 BC-200 AD
- Roughly constant until 8 or 7000BC when it was accelerated by agriculture in Mesopotamia
- Further acceleration in 4-2000BC due to secondary state development
(Frachetti) Intentional management (cultivation and herding) of domesticated plants and animals, involving changes in the use of the earth and the environment toward productive ends
Important plants/animals in SW Asia
- (Frachetti) Wheat, barley, sheep, goats
- Grain was huge for ancient civilizations both politically and religously. Surplus helped promote ideological control: sacrifices to gods and redistributed to workers
- (Frachetti) Living in one place all year round
- Already a part of hunter/gatherer lifestyle in 9000BC and is a major characteristic of early agricultural villages
- (Frachetti) A particular social form that employs seasonal cycling or mobility to exploit herd animals, often in marginal environments
- Botai: 35-3000BC First horse domestication (Kumys fermented mare's milk)
- Yamnaya: 30-2400BC Cattle pastoralists of western Eurasian steppes. Some of first uses of wheel. See evidence of silk road
SYZ-"China's Pompeii" Explain collapse in Han Dynasty (200BC-200AD) and Wang Mang's failure. This is being repeated today: Economy and population growing, climate change, and river is higher than city...
- 9AD-steals throne, supported by all
- 17AD-all hate him
- Chinese explain that failure was due to moral failure
- Western say fail due to external forces: flooding, drought, climate change
- Kidder's explanation due to: climate, population, politics, technology
Climate change, yes, but same with all dynasties. Strong El Niño produces drought in North China
Census taken says population was very dense
More bureaucratic than US! Including FEMAesque establishment. Filial piety (Confucianism) is important. Many people were moved to North to defend wall resulting in need for agriculture technology
Alters physical environment causing erosion into Yellow River causing flooding. Levies built in response, higher and higher until fail
Gently flooded, resulting in great preservation: mulberry leaves (for silkworms), coins (tell date), footprints (human and animal), roof tiles. Flooding was 13-17AD
Wang Mang-Unlucky and Bad
- Unlucky-flood which affected millions (possibly multiple)
- Bad-poor response to flooding, kept responding same way even after failing
Lack of objective accounts, lack of hard data, unwillingness to confront historical reality of slavery
Lack of objective accounts
- Accounts by enslavers ("Histories are written by oppresors", but archaeology provides voices to those silenced)
- Documents (business): rations, state of health, numbers, price, housing
- Owners claim focus is health/comfort, surveillence, wood/water supply, cost
- Archaeology shows that cost was most important with social engineering: juxtaposition of master's house to uniform, barrack-like, slave quarters
Lack of Hard Data
Building material did not last, not indicated on maps, development of areas
Unwillingness to Confront Historical Reality of Slavery
Historical documents, films, and tours: ex Alfred Jackson influence our preception
- Slaves were doing things to make life better
- buying in stores and trading in an underground system, storing things, hunting, root cellars
- Slave plantations were like small communities
Possibly where slaves hid things from their masters, or stored food
- Maya political struggle/environmental/ideology problems, which still exist today.
- Classic description of fall is from drought, moral decay, peasant revolt, invasion, or internal warfare
Maya Political struggle
(Freidel) 2 dynasties always in conflict Tikal and Calakmul.
Freidel's Theory on Maya Collapse
Hypercoherence: Interconnections are complicated and failure of one pulls others down "domino effect". Divine kings replaced by elected kings.
Vantage Points on Past
Different folks look at past differently. Native American regard fossil record differently than non-Native Americans.
Power of Past
Past is ideologically powerful and politically charged. Orwell-"Who controls the present controls the past; who controls the past controls the future" Ex: Nazi or Taliban and "culture terrorism" agaisnt Buddah statues in Bamiyan.
Pursuit of political power/agenda by religous, national, or ethnic groups drawing on a shared history, ideas, or culture.
Archaeology for National Purpose
Help create a past real or imagined that justifiies claims to power/territory control or to show and prove how great we were
Archaeology pre/post WWII
- Pre-Western Nations do archaeology, find, claim artifacts.
- Post-Nations with new control want to do their own archaeology and control the artifacts that are found in their region
Sudan-mesolithic site-warfare: many burials showing projectile points. Important to show how territory leads to warfare
Very early japanese pottery by a generalized hunter/gatherer mesolithic group. Why did it take so long to make pottery (15kya) if the Venus figurines were fired as early as (28kya)? No need until greater extraction in Mesolithic and need for storage.
Denmark-Woman burried with child on wing of a swan. Important because elaborate burials are evidence of settling down.