Ch. 54 Bio Final

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Ch. 54 Bio Final
2011-12-08 21:27:08
54 Bio Final

Ch. 54 Bio Final
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  1. What are the 3 levels of ecological hierarchy?
    Organismal ecology, Population ecology, and Community ecology
  2. What studies how an organism's physiology (physiological ecology) and behavior (behavioral ecology) meet the challenges of its environment?
    Organismal ecology
  3. What studies the factors that affect population size and how and why it changes over time- includes species interactions- includes the organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original distribution- can spread aggressively and crowd out native organisms (invasive species)?
    Population ecology
  4. What studies who populations interact and form functional communities?
    Community ecology
  5. Biotic
    interactions among species
  6. Abiotic
    interactions between organisms and their nonliving environment
  7. What factors affect the distribution of organisms? (6)
    Temperature, Wind, Water, Sunlight, Salinity, pH
  8. Global climate patterns are determined largely by what?
    - What are the 2 types?
    • the input of solar energy and the plant's movement in space
    • -Macroclimate and microclimate
  9. What are the patterns on the global, regional, and local level?
  10. What are very fine patterns, like those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log?
  11. Which zone would you find rooted plants?
  12. Which zone consists of the entire ocean bottom?
  13. Which zone(s) does light reach?
  14. Which zone does light not reach?
  15. Which zone consists of land and under water depending on the tide?
  16. What accounts for the largest part of the biosphere- distinguished by differences in salinity, oxygen content, depth, current strength, and availability of light?
    Aquatic biomes
  17. What zone is periodically submerged- oxygen and nutrient levels are high-plant life limited- animals have structural adaptations
    intertidal zone
  18. What needs warm water- limited to marine photic zones- require high oxygen levels- need solid substrate for attachment
    Coral reef
  19. What has high oxygen levels- nutrient levels are low and cover 70% of Earth's surface- nekton, zooplankton, and phytoplankton
    Open ocean or pelagic zone
  20. Lenthic habitats are made up of two types of lakes called what?
    Oligotrophic and Eutrophic lakes
  21. What lake is nutrient poor and oxygen rich?
    What lake is nutrient rich and oxygen poor?
    • Oligotrophic
    • Eutrophic
  22. What is low in dissolved oxygen and excellent filtration?
  23. Which biome has abundant rainfall, hot year round, high plant diversity, competition for light, and high animal diversity?
    Tropical rain forest
  24. What biome has substantial rainfall, distinct dry season, hot year round, high plant diversity, dense forest floor, and high animal diversity
    Tropical deciduous forest
  25. What biome has abundant rainfall, moderate temperature year round, evergreen dominate, and high animal diversity?
    Temperate rain forest
  26. What biome has significant precipitation, hot and humid summers, mild winters, deciduous trees dominate?
    Temperate deciduous forest
  27. What biome has snow that is common in the winters which are long and cold and hot summers, evergreen dominate, amphibians and reptiles rare?
    Temperate coniferous forest (taiga)
  28. What biome is warm year round, seasonal rainfall, grassland with scattered trees, insects abundant, and fire prevalent?
    Tropical grassland (savanna)
  29. What biome has seasonal rainfall, cold winters, hot summers, and is large mammal dominate?
    Temperate grassland (prairie)
  30. What biome has precipitation low, temperature varies, sparse vegetation, animals nocturnal, and adaptations in both plants and animals?
    Hot desert
  31. What biome has precipitation low, snow common, temperatures varies, sparse vegetation, adaptations in both plants and animals?
    Cold desert
  32. What biome covers expansive areas of the Arctic, long and cold winters, short and cool summers, and permafrost restricts plant growth?
  33. What biome has elevations and locations that are important, contains a variety of biomes, and has plant and animal life that is highly variable?
    Mountain ranges
  34. A major type of habitat characterized by distinctive plant and animal life- they are major community types- combination of both biotic and abiotic factors
  35. A layer of permanently frozen soil found in tundra
  36. Necessary to keep the surface of Earth as a habitable temperature- increased levels of CO2 are magnifying the effect- could cause global warming
    Greenhouse effect
  37. Refers to a freshwater habitat characterized by standing water
  38. Refers to a freshwater habitat characterized by running water
  39. The term used to describe aquatic systems that are low in nutrients such as phosphate and combined nitrogen and are consequently low in primary productivity and biomass, but typically high in species diversity
  40. Waters that contain relatively high levels of nutrients such as phosphate or nitrogen and typically exhibit high levels of primary productivity and low levels of biodiversity
  41. A group of individuals of the same species living in an area- members rely on the same resources and are influenced by similar environmental factors
  42. Consists of a group of populations of different species living in an area