Path 3

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ldewanz
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121843
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Path 3
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2011-12-08 10:47:13
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Path 3
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  1. AML
    • adults
    • failure to mature the myeloid cells
    • Auer rods=aggregates of granules in cytoplasm of blasts/ diagnostic
    • Tx=aggressive chemo/BMT
  2. ALL
    • Children
    • No distinguishing morphologic features
    • Dx=lymphoid surface antigens
    • B or T cell precursors
    • good prognosis
  3. CML
    • proliferation of granulocytes in blood and marrow
    • adults 45-55
    • initial chronic phase/acute leukemia (blast crisis)
    • Philadelphia chromosome (9,22)
    • Inc WBC#/hypercell marrow
    • Tx=tyrosine kinase Inhib/Gleevec/Imatinib
  4. CLL
    • B lymphocytes
    • Males>60
    • Incurable but indolent
  5. Lymphoma
    • B or T cells
    • node/solid lymphoid tissue
    • Sx= lymphadenopathy/splenomegaly/B symptoms
    • Dx=node biopsy for lrg/long 4-6 wks/inc size
  6. Follicular cell Lymphoma
    • low grade
    • aggregates of lymphocytes
    • marrow involvement
    • middle/older age (can transform into higher grade)
  7. Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma
    • localized disease
    • any age
    • large cells with prominant nuclei
  8. Burkitt Lymphoma
    • B cell
    • (8,14) translocation
    • fast double time (24 hrs)
    • "starry sky"
    • EBV associated
  9. Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Reed-sternberg cells
    • types: nodular sclerosis/mixed cellularity/ lymphocyte predominance
    • Sx: enlarged nodes (neck/chest)/B signs
  10. Plasma cell myeloma
    • monoconal immunoglobulin may be detected in serum
    • lytic lesons/hypercalcemia
    • older people
    • Sx: bone pain
    • incurable/5 yr survival
  11. Spleen disorders
    • reactive (inflammation)
    • congestive (cirrhosis/CHF)
    • infiltrative
  12. Thymus
    • crucial in T cell development
    • Tumor: benign/myasthenia gravis
  13. Iron Deficiency Anemia
    • Causes: dietary/blood loss/menses/pregnancy
    • Smear: hypochromic/microcytic
    • Marrow: dec Fe in macrophage or RBC precursor
    • Lab: dec serum/inc TIBC/dec saturation
  14. B12 deficiency
    • Delayed division in all cells
    • Marrow: hypercell
    • Smear: large oval RBC/hypersegmented WBC
    • Causes: poor absorb/Pernicious (AI)/cord degen
  15. Folate Deficiency
    • Delayed division in all cells
    • Marrow: hypercell
    • Smear: large oval RBC/hypersegmented WBC
    • Causes: inc RBC destruction leads to inc folate use
  16. Nephrotic syndrome
    • heavy proteinuria (>3.5gr/24hrs)
    • hypoproteinemia
    • periferal edema
    • hyperlipidemia
  17. Nephritic syndrome
    • hematuria
    • proteinuria (<3.5gr/24hrs)
    • oligouria
    • Dec GFR (Inc BUN/CR)
    • HTM (may have)
  18. Glomerulonepritis
    • primary: renal disease only
    • secondary: systemic disease w/renal involve
    • Lab: >1gr protein/24hrs/red cell casts/
    • Dx: biopsy
  19. Pyelonephritis
    • Neutrophilic response leads to fibrotic lesions
    • ascending infections
    • Acute: fever/white cell casts/leukocytosis
    • Chronic: polyuria/HTM/renal insufficiency
  20. Acute tubular Necrosis
    • Ischemia
    • Toxins
  21. Vascular Kidney disease
    (nephrosclerosis)
    • Benign: from essential HTN
    • Malignant: sudden onset of HTN/life-threatening
  22. Cystitis
    • Sx: burning/frequency/urgency
    • Risk: remale/FB obstruction/instrumentation
  23. vWD
    • abnormal vWF (protected by Factor 8)
    • Sx: easily bruise/nose bleeds/heavy periods
    • Type I: quantitative/all fragments but too little #
    • Type II: qualitative
    • Type III: no vWF/severe sx
  24. Hemophilia
    • x-linked recessive
    • Type A: factor 8 (common)
    • Type B: factor 9
    • Sx: bleeding into joints/muscles/organs
    • Repete bleeds=damage/pain/deformities
    • Tx: recombinant factors
  25. Osteoarthritis
    • One joint
    • destruction of hyaline cartilage
    • Normal wear&tear/heavy use/damage
    • compensatory bone hypertrophy (inc SA of joints)
  26. Rheumatoid arthritis
    • AI rxn to synovial membrane in many joints
    • chronic inflammation of synovial mem (pannus) dislocates bones
  27. Sprain
    tearning of ligaments/joint capsules
  28. Strain
    tearning of muscle/tendon
  29. Meningocele
    herniation of meninges
  30. Meningomyelocele
    herniation of nerve roots and spinal cord
  31. Achondroplastic
    • most common type of dwarfism
    • fail normal bone/cartilage formation and growth
  32. Osteomalacia
    • adults (bones break)
    • Rickets=kids (bones bend)
    • Vit D deficiency
  33. Paget's Disease
    • >40 yrs
    • resorb bone and replace w/poorly mineralized
    • "mosaic tile" under microscope
    • 10% develop osteosarcoma
  34. Osteomyelitis
    • Sequestrum: walled off dead bone
    • Involucrum: new bone formed to wall off infection
  35. Osteosarcoma
    • Dx: cells making osteoid
    • Lytic or blastic
    • 10-25 yrs
    • metaphysis, usually around knee
    • Poor prognosis
  36. Chondrosarcoma
    • >35
    • slow growth/trunk/upper extremities
  37. Comminuted fracture
    • fragmented
    • multiple pieces
  38. Green stick fracture
    incomplete
  39. Bone healing
    • fibrin clot at site (cells of periosteum/endosteum organize)
    • callus formed (granulation tissue/soft)
    • calcification (bone callus)
    • enchondral bone formation (cartilage turned to bone)
    • lamellar bone replaces bone callus trabecular bone
  40. Type I muscle
    • antigravity
    • slow twitch
    • myoglobin/oxidative metabolism
    • late to fatigue
  41. Type II muscle
    • bursts of great strength
    • fast twitch
    • lack myoglobin/anaerobic/lactic acid build up
    • fatigues early
  42. Duchenne muscle dystrophy
    • most common
    • sex-linked recessive (male)
    • early onset
  43. Myotonic dystrophy
    • autosomal dominant
    • onset later in life
    • normal life expectancy
  44. Hydrocephalus causes
    • congenital malformations
    • neoplasms
    • meningial scaring
  45. Glial cells
    • Astrocyte: supporting cell/scar formation
    • Oligodendrocyte: myelin (PNS=schwann cell)
    • Ependymal: lines ventricular system
  46. Epidural hematoma
    • btw skull and dura
    • rupture of artery/fracture skull
    • rapid
  47. Subdural hematoma
    • btw dura and brain
    • rupure of veins
    • slow onset
  48. Cerebral aneurysm
    • localized dilation in vessel wall
    • lack internal elastica
    • occur at branch points (middle and ant cerebral branches)
  49. Brain abscess
    • infection of brain substance
    • extensive necrosis
    • bacteria/fungus
  50. Encephalitis
    • infection of brain substance
    • minimal necrosis
    • virus
  51. Alzheimer's disease
    • progress loss of intelectual/cognitive skills
    • neuritic plaques/neurofibrillary tangles
  52. Parkinson's disease
    • Lewy bodies
    • tremors
    • loss spontaneous movements
    • rigidity
    • Substantia nigra looses pigment
  53. meningitis
    • confinded to arachnoid
    • bacterial/fungal/viral

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