Sexuality - Social Psychology

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rach123
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121871
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Sexuality - Social Psychology
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2011-12-08 12:07:33
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Sexuality Social Psychology
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Sexuality - Social Psychology
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  1. Which two aspects of psychology have traditional/mainstream social psychologists been concerned with?
    Identity and Practices
  2. Critical social psychologists have been concerned with how sexual identity and practices have been ___.
    Constructed
  3. What are the four mainstream/traditional approaches in which sexuality has been theorised?
    • Biological,
    • Sociobiological,
    • Psychoanalytic,
    • Liberal Humanist
  4. Biological approaches see homosexuality as a biological ___.
    Anomoly
  5. Biological approaches are concerned with gonads (i.e. testes, ovaries), ___ and ___.
    • Hormones (Androgyns, Estrogyns, Progestins)
    • Brain Function (Pituitary gland, hypothalamus)
  6. Who recorded some of the first laboratory data on anatomy and physiology of human sexual response?
    Masters & Johnson (1966)
  7. Masters and Johnson (1966) showed the physiological pattern of sexual response in the ____.
    Human Sexual Response Cycle
  8. Who conducted a self-report study with physiological measures of arousal?
    Chivers et al (2004)
  9. Chivers et al's (2004) study found that ___ show category-specific sexual responding while ___ arousal was less specific.
    Men, Women's
  10. How many types of visual stimuli were used in Chivers et al's (2004) study?
    Four
  11. LeVay (1991) looked at 41 participants and found that there were differences in brain structure in the ___ area between homeosexual and hererosexual participants.
    Hypothalamic
  12. Who proposed the gay gene?
    Hamer et al (1993)
  13. Hamer et al (1993) tracked the DNA patterns of 114 individuals and found a link to other gay family members on the ___ side of the family.
    Mother's
  14. Martin et al (2008) argue that ___ can predict homosexuality.
    Digit ratio
  15. Sociobiological approaches say that sexuality is innate and ___ based, and its purpose is ___.
    Biologically, Procreation
  16. Which approach is most closely related to evolution?
    Sociobiological
  17. Psychoanalytic approaches say that sexuality is about innate ___.
    Drives/instincts
  18. Psychoanalytic approaches say that the purpose of sexuality is primarily about ___ and the release of ___.
    Pleasure, Sexual tension
  19. Psychoanalytic approaches say that homosexuality is the product of dysfunctional upbringing, resulting in fixation at ___ or ___ stages of sexual development or failure to resolve the ____.
    Oral, Anal, Oedipal complex
  20. The biological, sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches are similar in that they say sexuality is biologically based and/or ___.
    Socialised
  21. The biological, sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches are similar in that they say sexuality is about ___ function.
    Biological
  22. The biological, sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches are similar in that they say that ____ is given primacy.
    Penis-in-vagina
  23. The biological, sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches are similar in that they say that ___ is the norm.
    Heterosexuality
  24. The biological, sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches are similar in that they say that homosexuality is unnatural or pathological, resulting from a ___ anomaly and/or early ___.
    Biological, Socialisation
  25. The Liberal Humanist approach emerged after the ___.
    1970's
  26. Post 1970's, there became more of a focus on sexuality as a ___ preference.
    Personal
  27. Post 1970's there is a view that sexuality is a small aspect of the ___.
    Whole self
  28. The Liberal Humanist approach sees ___ sexual acts between consenting adults as normal, natural and healthy.
    All
  29. Kinsey et al (1948) saw ___ as the norm.
    Bisexuality
  30. Kinsey et al (1948) conducted structured interviews and found that many people had experienced ____ attractions (or conducted behaviours).
    Same-sex
  31. What was the name of the continuum f sexuality proposed by Kinsey et al (1948)?
    The Kinsey Scale
  32. What measure of sexuality was invented in 1978 to be able to position somebody on the Kinsey scale?
    The Klein Sexual Orientation Grid (Klein, 1978)
  33. What did Hooker (1957) use to show a personal bias in gay men who had been labelled as having mental health problems?
    Rorschach profiles - no significant difference between gay and straight men so no evidence of a psychological connection.
  34. What emerged in the 1980's following the downgrading of the DSM category 'Homosexuality' in 1973?
    Gay-affirmative psychology
  35. Gay-affirmative psychology aims to counter ___ and ___ against people who are not conventionally heterosexual.
    Prejudice, Discrimination
  36. One criticism of the liberal humanist approach is that assumes ___ and that these are equally available and feasible.
    Free choice
  37. One criticism of the liberal humanist approach is that it ignores the way in which ___ impact on sexuality.
    Wider social factors
  38. Critical social psychological perspectives say that sexuality is socially and culturally ___ as a form of social control over people's behaviour.
    Constructed
  39. Critical social psychological perspectives say that psychology intentionally constructs men's and women's sexuality in different ways to maintain ____.
    Social inequalities
  40. Which critical social psychologist coined the term, 'compulsory heterosexuality'?
    Rich (1980)
  41. What term refers to the way in which heterosexuality is promoted and or coercively enforced?
    Compulsory heterosexuality
  42. In which three ways did Rich (1980) believe heterosexuality is promoted or coercively enforced?
    • Romatic ideologies
    • Physical force (e.g. rape)
    • Censorship of alternative sexual arrangements (don't make visible so people won't be converted)
  43. What did Hyde and Oliver (1995) propose?
    The heterosexual script
  44. The heterosexual script suggests that ___ available sexual scripts define what counts as sex and how to behave in relational/sexual encounters.
    Culturally
  45. What are the three well-known discourses for sexual subjects?
    • The 'male sex drive' discourse
    • The 'have/hold' discourse
    • The 'permissive'discourse
  46. Which discourse suggests that men are driven to and have a need for sex?
    The 'male sex drive' discourse
  47. Which discourse promotes monogamy, fmaily life and partnership?
    The 'have/hold' discourse
  48. What discouse did Fine (1988) say was missing from teaching?
    Desire
  49. Sexual identities are regulated through the ___ used to talk about them.
    Language

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