Physical science final.txt

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Physical science final.txt
2011-12-08 12:26:12
Physical Science

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  1. Which of the following statements best describes the Law of Conservation of Mass?
    The mass of all the products will be the same as the mass of all the reactants
  2. What is a reaction rate?
    It is the speed at which reactants are consumed or product is formed
  3. How does a catalyst increase the rate of a reaction?
    It increases the energy difference between the reactants and products
  4. What is an endothermic reaction?
    • A reaction where the products have more energy than the reactants
    • A reaction where there is a net aborption of energy from a reaction
    • A reaction that requires heat as a reactant
  5. Which of the following statements doesn't reflect a change in entropy?
    • A stack of neatly arranged clothing falls from a table
    • The tendency of a clean room to slowly (or not so slowly) become messy
    • A tower of cards collapsing as a child bumps it
    • A hot frying pan radiating heat
    • All of the above describe entropy in action
  6. The two most abundant elements in Earth's crust are
    silicon and oxygen
  7. Process of crystalization enriches a magma in
    • minerals that have low melting points
    • silica and other minerals that have low melting points
    • silica
  8. Some _____ rocks is formed from minerals that were once dissolved in water
  9. Rocks can begin to melt if
    • the rocks water content increases thereby decreasing the rocks melting point
    • a decrease in pressure results in a sufficient decrease in the rocks melting point
    • heated by rising magma from the Earth's interior
  10. Radiometric dating is based on
    the half-life of radioactive atoms
  11. The velocity of a seismic wave depends on
    the type of material it travels through
  12. Because S-waves do not travel through Earth's outer core, scientists inferred that the outer core is
    molten liquid
  13. Wegener's theory of continental drift
    was not accepted by the scientific communited of the early 1900's
  14. The theory of seafloor spreading is supported by
    paleomagnetic analysis of the ocean's floor
  15. Magnetic surveys of the ocean floors reveal
    alternating strips of normal and reversed polarity paralleling the mid-Atlantic ridge
  16. Granite does not readily form near oceanic-oceanic convergent boundaries because
    • The magma formed at this type of boundary is not conducive to producing granite type rocks
    • oceanic-oceanic convergence often results in the eruption of andesitic lavas
    • granite forms from granitic magma and most oceanic material is basaltic in origins
  17. Nebular theory pertains to the formation of
    the solar system
  18. What region of the Sun is solar energy generated ?
    The inner core, with temperatures more than 15,000,000 K
  19. With daytime temperatures that can reach 430 degrees Celcius why is nightime on Mercury so cold?
    With very little atmosphere, heat is quickly lost back into space
  20. What is the most abundant component (at 82%) of Jupiter's atmosphere ?
  21. Is the rate of Earth's rotation increasing or decreasing?
  22. About how many tons of meteorities strike the Earth on a daily basis?
    200 tons
  23. What is the upper limit of stars the unaided eye can discern on a moonless night in a rural area?
    About 3,000 stars
  24. What are the relative compositions of the materials from which stars form?
    About 74% hydrogen, about 24% helium, no more than 2% other materials
  25. On the H-R diagram our Sun is a
    Star of average luminosity and temperature
  26. A star's size stabilizes when
    Thermal pressure and gravitational attraction balance each other
  27. One of Edwin Hubble's discoveries is that the known universe is expanding. This means that
    Most all observable galaxies are moving away from each other
  28. Cosmology is the study of the overall structure and evolution of
    The universe
  29. Cosmic Inflation refers to
    An extremely rapid expansion of the early universe that occurred in an extremely brief period of time
  30. Spacetime is curved by
  31. Dark Matter is matter that is
    Cannot be seen or felt, but can be measured through its gravitational effects
  32. Dark energy
    • Would be considered to be the opposite of gravity
    • Is energy that exerts an outward pressure, causing spacetime to expand
    • Is the phenomenon responsible for the acceleration of the universe
  33. Heat death refers to the universe
    Reaching the lowest energy state possible, which will mean the greatest level of entropy