Musicians combined elements of _____ into what we now call fusion.
funk, rock, and jazz
Fusion groups used _____ instruments. such as ____
electric bass and synthesizers
Fusion groups applied ____.
sound amplification and electronic effects
Fusion groups also began to "fuse" with _____.
different types of world music (folk music from around the world).
Fusion Musical characteristics
Very little use of swing feel
Both static harmonies and complex, non-traditional harmonies
1970s technology included ______ which changed the quality of recordings, and the process of recording.
editing, mixing, and mastering
What was the change in quality recordings, and the process of recording evidenced by?
the ECM and CTI labels
Electronic insturments and effects improved drastically. _____ sounds as well as amplified sounds.
What do conservative audiences say about fusion?
claim that fusion is not jazz, but a branch of progressive rock.
lack of swing feel and of ties to jazz tradition
Dates for Fusion?
Others view fusion as an extension of jazz, which _____.
has the capacity to absorb other types of music
Like early jazz, what did fusion encompass?
many kinds of then-modern music, and featured improvisation (sometimes collective)
What was Miles Davis's fusion band?
Miles Davis Electric Band
What initiated the fusion-jazz movement?
Seminal 1969 recording Bitches' Brew
What did the Miles Davis Electric Band feature?
mostly electronic instruments
Electric Bass, electric guitar, electric piano, electronic effects on acoustic instruments
What did the Miles Davis Electric Band make use of?
recording studio editing techniques
Davis Elctric Band opened for rock groups such as....
Steve Miller, Santana, and Grateful Dead
After incorporating electronics, what did Miles Davis begin incorporating?
elements of funk in his music
What albums did Davis incorporate elements of funk?
On the Corner
Who played Keyboard in Miles' Electric Band?
Herbie Hancock, Chic Corea, Joe Zawinul
Who played Electric Guitar in Miles' Electric Band?
Who played Bass in Miles' Electric Band?
Who played Sax in Miles' electric band?
Wayne Shorter, Dave Liebman, Sonny Fortune, Benny Maupin
The names of the members of the Electric Band represent what?
a cross section of the most important jazz musicians of the 1960s and 1970s.
Spearheaded by former Davis sideman John McLaughlin and Billy Cbham in 1971, ____ was influenced by DAvis and contemprary rock groups like Jimi Hendrix and The Who.
What did Mahavishnu Orchestra feature?
tight ensemble work and rhythmically complex meters instead of the continuous, free flowing jams of the Miles Davis Band
What was Mahavishnu Orchestra's instrumentation?
Traditional rock group instrumentation: electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards, drums, electric violin (non-traditional)
Who was Weather Report co-founded by?
keyboardist Joe Zawinul and Saxophonist Wayne Shorter (both Miles Davis Electric Band alums) in 1971
Weather Report was joined later by Jaco Pastorius, who is considered ____.
the first true virtuoso of the electric bass
What did Weather Report blend elements of?
collective improv, electronic instruments, world music, jazz, rock, and funk into an extremely eclectic body of work
What did Joe Zawinul's composition style set the standard for?
harmony beyond the 1960s (neither modal, traditional, nor atonal)
Weather Report's rhythm section players did not strictly play traditional roles..for ex....
the bass often took over parts of the melody
Weather Report, distinction between ________ is blurred in a collective improvisation setting.
soloist and accompanist
Return to Forever was founded by ____.
Keyboardist Chick Corea in 1972
Who was part of Return to Forever?
Flora Purim (vocals)
Stanley Clarke (bass)
Airto Moreira (drums)
Joe Farrell (sax, flute)
Return to Forever initially performed more _______.
jazz/latin American oriented music, the band shifted to more rock oriented music after some personnel changes
Head Hunters was led by _____ on the Head Hunters album in 1973.
What was the most successful album of the jazz fusion period?
Head Hunters by Head Hunters
Head Hunter's music drew from??
more heavily from funk and R&B than from rock or world music
What did the Head Hunters' studio-oriented albums rely heavily on?
Hancock's layering of keyboard synthesizers and studio techniques
Head Hunters' popularly sampled in _____.
later hip hop and R&B
The fusion group the Brecker Brothers Band was founded in 1975 by whom?
Brothers Michael (tenor sax) and Randy Brecker (trumpet)
Both Brecker brothers were late _____ alums, and session musicians for pop artists such as _____.
Aerosmith, Blood Sweat and Tears, Parliament, Steely Dan, Bruce Springsteen, and many others
the first outstanding player of the EWI
an electronic wind synthesizer
an electronic instrument controlled by breath, usingkeys like a saxophone
What did the Brecker Brothers Band feature?
up and coming NY musicians, including saxophonist David Sanborn and keyboardist Don Grolnick
Ornette Coleman began using elctronic instruments in his group ____.
Despite the presence of electronic instruments, Ornette Coleman's music remained _____.
very similar to his free jazz works of the past
What does avant-garde mean?
French for vanguard, which is the front-line of a movement
What is the term "avant-garde" generally applied to?
musicians who are creating new, experimental kinds of jazz in the 1960s, encompassing varying musical styles
What does the term "free jazz" refer to?
a specific jazz style, in which improvisations are not based on pre-arranged chords
Free Jazz Musical Characteristics
Soloists free to play melodies/rhythms
What is floating beat?
tempo/groove not clearly stated
Ornette Coleman played what?
texas-born alto saxophonist (later played trumpet and violin)
Despite ______, Coleman stayed the course and developed his unique brand of free jazz throughout his life.
his early educational setbacks
lacking accepance from other musicians
First Jazz musician to win a Pulitzer in 2007
Coleman's Significant recording...
Something Else, Change of the Century, Free Jazz
--All feat. Don Cherry on trumpet
Ornette Coleman developed an approach to improv that did not rely on ____.
traditional harmony, "freeing" the soloist from the conventions of chords and song forms
Describe Ornette Coleman's music
Constant tempos, blues influence in his sax sound, use of traditional melody-solo-melody format, traditional instrument roles
Cecil Tayler played what?
classically trained pianist from NY
What did Cecil Taylor develop?
alternative style of free jazz, often compared to the twentieth-century classical composers of testural music, such as Penderecki
Musical Characteristics of Cecil Taylor's music
tone clusters, atonal, percussive approach to piano
Who was John Coltrane a sideman with?
Miles Davis and Thelonious Monk
During the late 1950s, John Coltrane established himself as the most_____
technically proficient and harmonically complex tenor saxophonist, with solo recordings like Blue Trane and Giant Steps.
Into the 1960s, _____ work in modal jazz and free jazz changed the way all musicians played, like Charlie Parker did 2 decades earlier.
John Coltrane primary contributions are in what style?
What did John Coltrane revive?
the soprano sax, which had became nearly obsolete
Heavily influenced by Eastern philosophies and religions, ____ sought to express the spiritual in his late works.
What style of playing did Coltrane have?
"sheets of sound"
Coltrane's solos border on ____.
the "free" aesthetic
an active member in the free jazz community, playing on Ornette's Free Jazz, and collaborating with other free jazz saxophonists Albert Ayler, Pharaoh Sanders, and Archie Schepp.
_____ are leading figures in applying politics to jazz music. They included some elements of free jazz and elements of previous jazz styles.
Charles Mingus, Sun Ra, and Archie Schepp
What was Charles Mingus?
Bassist, composer, bandleader, and pianist
America's 2nd most prolific composer
Who was Charles Mingus heavily influenced by _____.
Where did Charles Mingus draw musical language from?
early jazz, bebop, free jazz, gospel, Mexican folk music, European classical music, poetry, politics...
What or 2 of Charles Mingus' blantantly political works?
"Oh Lord, Dont Let them drop that Atomic bomb on me"
"Fables of Faubs"
had thoroughly structured music, incorporating sections of organized chaos/free improvisation
Sun Ra is a Chicago based_____.
pianist, keyboardist, composer, and bandleader
Sun Ra utilized?
large ensembles and unusual instruments
Sun Ra influenced by?
Big Band era, early electronic music, African chant, Trane
Modal Jazz date?
Free Jazz/Avant-Garde dates?
Smooth Jazz dates?
The jazz audience shrank substantially during the 1980s, leaving a large population of older audiences who preferred the older jazz styles. This led to ____.
the neo-classic jazz movement and musical conservatism
In the 1980s, musicians continued to incorporate elements of jazz with contemporary music. This led to _____.
the continuing fragmentation of jazz styles, including the popular smooth jazz movement
What is neo classic jazz a return to?
traditional jazz values
neo classic jazz focus on:
pre-bop styles: swing, early jazz
Neo classic jazz used ____instruments
Neo Classic Jazz, the movement is almost single-heandedly spearheaded by ____, one of the most visible jazz musicians alive.
Wynton Marsalis is from the Marsalis family of ____.
what did Wynton Marsalis play?
a great classical trumpeter
first jazz musician to win a Pulitzer Prize for his large scale work Blood on the Fields
What was Wynton Marsalis a significant supporter of?
Marsalis was fiercely conservative: his views ____.
"post-1965 avant-garde playing to be outside of jazz and 1970s fusion to be barren"
one of the most influential and visible jazz musicians to date
How did conservative audiences see Marsalis?
as a godsend, returning jazz to its former glory after years of dilution by fusion
HOw did liberal audiences see Marsalis?
believe his neo-classic approach has stunted the growth of jazz, in the same way classical music is dominated by music of the past
Popular culture displayed a large interest in new swing music during the 1990s. Groups imitated the style of popular music from the 1930s and 1940s. Groups included:
Cherry Poppin' Daddies
Big Bad Voodoo Daddy
Brian Setzer Orchestra
A branch of fusion, combining elements of jazz with rock, funk, R&B and pop
Smooth jazz was commercially lucrative and radio-friendly. Marketable as ____.
inoffensive, easily ignorable background music
Smooth jazz, instrumental covers of ___.
Smooth Jazz often criticized by jazz musicians as ____.
musically unsubstantial and un-artistic
Smooth Jazz Musical Characteristics
Focus on melody and decoration, rather than improv
Lacking intensity of other jazz styles
Lack of intensity and synthesized rhythm sections make it more of a recording art than performance art.
Instrumentation of Smooth Jazz
saxophones, electric guitars, electric keyboards, synthesized drums
Considered a founder of the smooth jazz movement
Grover Washington Jr.
Grover Washington Jr. established a soulful style of playing saxophone, based on _______.
vocal styles of sould and R&B, rather than the complex styles of John Coltrane and Charlie Parker
Grover Washington Jr. had commercially successful albums such as...
Just the Two of Us
( solo on Bill Withers' album)
Kenny G. played?
smooth jazz tenor and soprano sax
Kenny G was a veteran fusion player with keyboardist _____.
one of the few jazz artists to achieve platinum-record status
Kenny G was highly criticized as _______.
a commercial bastardization of jazz
Jazz mixed with music of Latin American musics--began with Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo in the 1940s, continued in the Bossa Nova Craze of the 1950s, and has continued to today with artists such as Eddie Palmieri and Arturo Sandoval.
Rock star with jazz status due to traditional ties
Difficult to place in an existing genres, but highly influential
Pat Metheney and Michael Brecker
jumping from style to style on concept albums (Coltrane album, Asian folk music album, elements of fusion, etc)
Drawing from any and all resources, does not fit into any specific category except for the instrumentation of a big band
Writing big band music in a symphonic style, often not swinging, utilizing soloistic styles of specific players like Ellington did