Ointments, Creams, Pastes

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Ointments, Creams, Pastes
2011-12-08 14:04:45
Dose Form Final

Dose Form Final
Show Answers:

  1. Purpose of topical preparations
    • Protection of injured area and rejuvenation of the skin
    • Hydration, lubrication or emollient effect
    • Convey medication(s) to the skin or mucosa (specific effect, topically or systemically)
    • Application to skin, eye, nose, vagina, and rectum
  2. Topical dermatological products
    Deliver drug into the skin (the target) to treat dermal disorders (topical absorption)
  3. Transdermal products
    Deliver drugs through the skin (percutaneous absorption) to the general circulation for systemic effects (skin is not the target)
  4. What are the five factors that affect drug penetration?
    • Surface area
    • Condition of the skin
    • Base/Delivery system used
    • Occlusive dressings
    • Pressure/Rubbing
  5. Another name for ointment?
  6. Semisolid preparations for external application to the skin or mucous membranes?
    • Soften or melt at body temperature
    • Spread easily
    • Not gritty
  7. Where are oinments applied?
    dry, scaly lesions: skin, mucosa and eye
  8. Non-medicated ointments
    ointment bases
  9. Medicated ointments
    Ointment base + drug (s)
  10. Types of ointment bases?
    • Oleaginous
    • Aqueous
  11. What do stiffeners do?
  12. What is the purpose of humectants?
    Escape of moisture
  13. Antioxidants prevent?
  14. Penetration enhancers
    help penetration into the skin
  15. Preservatives prevent?
    Microbial growth
  16. Manual prepartion of ointments?
    • Pill tile (ointment pad or parchment paper + spatula
    • Mortar and pestle
    • Zip Bag
  17. Mechanical methods of ointment preparation?
    • Large quantity: kitchen mixers with paddles/blades
    • Electronic mortar and pestle (the Unguator) mixing and dispensing in the same container
  18. How do you choose an ointment base?
    • Drug release rate
    • Enhancement of percutaneous absorption
    • Occlusion of moisture (if skin is dry, wet it; if it is wet, dry it)
    • Stability of drug
    • Influence of drug on the other components of formulation (consistency)
    • Patient factors (dry skin, intact or broken skin)
  19. Two methods of preparing ointments
    • Incorporation
    • Fusion
  20. Two ways of incorporating
    • By Trituration (mortar and pestle)
    • Spatulation (ointment tile and spatulas)
  21. Incorporation of liquids
    • Base capacity to accept liquids (40-50% for absorption bases)
    • Final consistency desired
    • pre-incorporation into a minimum amount of another miscible base
    • Alchooic solutions (only small volumes into oleaginous and emulsion bases)
  22. What is fusion?
    • Melting of ingredients together and cooling with constant stirring until congealing
    • Trituration or spatulation after cooling
    • Melting of materials that are too thick or chucky
    • Use of "solvent action" prevent high temperatures
    • Heat-sensitive and volatile ingredients: cooling needed
  23. Steps in fusion
    • 1. Oleaginous phase: oils and waxes are melted together
    • 2. Aqueous phase: solutions of heat-stable and water-solube ingredients are heated to similar temperatures of oily phase
    • 4. Cooling with frequent stirring until congealing
  24. What ointments are required to be sterile?
  25. What are rectal, urethral and vaginal ointments tested for?
    yeasts and molds
  26. Compendial requirements (USP) for Ointments
    • Microbial content
    • Minimum fill
    • Packaging, Storage, and Labeling
  27. what can ointments be stored in?
    • Jars
    • Tubes
    • Syringes
  28. What temperatures should ointments be stored in?
    Room temperature, away from excessive heat to prevent softening and separation of phases
  29. Labels must include?
    Appropriate route and mode of admistration
  30. Viscosity
    Change in consistency
  31. Need levigating agent if?
    bleeding of liquid ingredients and phase separation
  32. If grittiness occurs
    Chemical stabilty of active ingredient compromised
  33. Need humectant if?
    Drying out of ointment base
  34. Examples of humectant
    Glycerin, Propylene glycol
  35. Which are more stable Oleaginous and anhydrous bases or Emulsion bases?
    Oleaginous and anhydrose bases
  36. Beyond use date of extempraneous preparations with wat?
    2 weeks supply max
  37. Beyond use date of extemporaneous non-aqueous liquids or anhydrous preparations that use a manufactured product
    25% of the time remaining on the product's expiration date or 6 months, whichever is earlier
  38. What are creams?
    • Opaue soft solids or very thick liquids for external application
    • Semisolid dosage forms containing one or more drug substances dissolved or dispersed i a suitable base. Traditionally, they possess a relatively fluid consistency and are formulated as o/w or w/o emulsions. Recently the term is used for products consisting of o/w emulsions or aqueous microcrystalline dispersions of long chain fatty acids or alcholos that are water washable and more cosmetically and aesthetically acceptable
  39. Benefits of creams
    easier to spread and remove than ointments
  40. Uses for creams
    Topical, rectal, vaginal
  41. What are vanishing creams?
    Creams of the o/w emulsion-type with large percentage of water and stearate soap type emulsifiers (water evaporates leaving a thin film on skin
  42. Applications of creams?
    • weeping or oozing lesions
    • Drying effects: body fluids miscible with cream aqueous external phase
  43. Stablilty concerns with creams
    • Emulsion breakage
    • Crystal growth
    • Shrinkage
    • gross microbial contamination
  44. Pastes
    Thick, stiff ointments that ordinarily do not flow body temperature and have reduced absorption
  45. Pastes coat the affected area to provide
  46. How much solid material is in a paste?
    At least 25% of solid materials
  47. Application of Pastes
    • Areas that require protection
    • Remains in place longer than ointments (sticky)
    • Absorption of serous discharge from skin lesions
    • Less greasy feeling than some oleaginous ointments
    • Not suited for hairy parts of the body
  48. Pastes can be prepared by?
    • Incorporation by spaturlation
    • Fusion- heat improves workability of base prior to incorporation of solids
  49. Can portion of the base be used as a levigating agent?
  50. If baste is too stiff and difficult to apply what must be done?
    Reduction of waxy component concentration
  51. What are gels?
    • Semisolid systems consiting of dispersions of small inorganic particles or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid
    • Gels are semirigid systems in which the movement of the dispersing medium is restricted by an interlacing three-dimensional network of particles or solvated macromolecules of the dispersed phase
  52. Taking up of liquid with no measureable increase in volume
  53. Taking up of liquid with increase in volume (solvation)
  54. Intense interaction between particles of the dispersed phase so that, on standing, the dispersion medium is squeezed out in droplets and the gell shrinks (instability)
  55. Reversible gel-sol formation with no change in volume or temperature (sol=liquid form of a gel upon agitation)
  56. Removal of the liquid from a gel, leaving only the framwork (gelatin sheets, acacia tears, tragacanth ribbons)
  57. Preservatives recommended for gels
    • Sodium benzoate
    • Benzalkonium Chloride
    • Metylparaben
    • Propylparaben
  58. Gels and Magmas are
    Colloidal dispersions
  59. Natural polymers
  60. Semisynthetci Cellulose derivatives
  61. Synthetic polymers
    Carbomer polymers
  62. Single-phase gels made from synthetic or nautral macromolecule
  63. Magmas
    AKA Milk
  64. Systems with large particle size of floccules of small distinct paticles
  65. Common gelling agents
    • Acacia, pectin, starch, tragacanth, xanthan gum, etc
    • Alginic acid (seaweed)
    • Animal/vegtable fars: lard, cocoa butter
    • Gelatin
    • Bentonite, Veegum
    • Carboxymethylcellulose
    • Carbomer resins
    • Carbowax bases
    • Colloidal silicon dioxide
    • Polyvinyl alcohol
    • Petrolatum, mineral oil/polyethylene gel, plastibase