CMST 2063 Common Fallacies

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  1. Hasty Generalization
    drawing conclusions from insufficent evidence
  2. Faulty use of authority
    failing to acknowledge disagreement among exports or otherwise misrepresenting the trustworthiness of sources
  3. Post Hac or Doubtful Cause
    Mistakenly inferring that because one event follows another they have a casual relation; from words meaingin afer this, therefore, because of this
  4. False Analogy
    asssuming without sufficient proof that if objects or processes are similar in some ways, then theya re similar in other ways as well
  5. Ad Hominem
    "against the man"; attacking the arguer rather than the artument or issue
  6. False dilemma
    simplifying a complex problem into an either/or dichotomy
  7. Slippery Slope
    predicting without justification that one step in a process will lead unavoidably to a second, generally undeseriable step
  8. Begging the question
    Making a statement that assumes that the issue being argued has already been decided
  9. Straw Man
    disputing a view similar to, but not the same as, that of the arguer's opponent
  10. Two wrongs make a right
    diverting attention from the issue by introducint a new point, e.g. by responding to an accusation with a counteraccusation that makes no attempt to refute the first accusation
  11. Non sequitur
    "it does not follow"; using irrelevant proof to buttress a claim
  12. Ad Populum
    "to the people"; playing on the prejudices of the audience
  13. Appeal to tradition
    a proposal that someting should continue because it has traditionally existed or been done that way
  14. Faulty Emotional Appeals
    basing an argument on feelings, especially pity or fear - often to draw attention away from the resal issues or conceal another purpose
  15. Motivated Sequence
    five steps that must be taken in order tomotivate the audience to adopt a policy, an action or belief. Thes teps are Attention, need, satisfaction, visulization, and action
  16. Basic method of organizing a short speech
    • getting attention
    • showing the need; describing he problem
    • statsfying the need presenting the solution
    • visualizing the result
    • requesting action or approval
  17. Seven basic attention getters
    • referring to the subject or occasion
    • using the personal reference
    • asking a rhetorical question
    • making a startling statement of fact or opinion
    • using a quotation
    • telling a humorous anecdote
    • using an illustration
  18. The speech’s conclusion
    the conclusion should be breif; may consist of 5% of the spech may need to summerize it or mya return to one of the attetnion-getters mentioned ealier
  19. Language (different kinds of vocabulary for different kinds of audiences)
    most speeches are distinguesed by an oral style that respects the rhythmns of ordinary speech and sounds spontaneous
  20. What is the “human instrument”?
    gesters and voice inflections etc
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CMST 2063 Common Fallacies
2011-12-08 19:52:40

Common Fallacies
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