Final

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roshellgist18
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Final
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2011-12-11 16:35:03
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Human Evolution
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Review for final exam
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  1. Nuclear Zone hypothesis
    • (Robert Braidwood)
    • Hypothesis that domestication and agriculture occured in the foothills of mountains because theres an abundent of plants.
  2. Neolithic Revolution
    Childes term for the change from hunting and gathering to agriculture
  3. A state of interdependence between humans and selected plants and animal species. Intense selection activity induces permanent genetic change, enhanciing a species value to humans.
    Domestication.
  4. Cultural activities associated with planting, herding, and processing domesticated species.
    AGRICULTURE
  5. Mutually advantageous association of two different organisms, also known as mutualism.
    Symbiosis. "Sym"= together "Bios"= life)
  6. Permanent springs or water holes in an arid region
    oases
  7. The notion that certain cultural outcomes can be predicted from, or are determined by, a combination of purely environmental causes.
    Environmental determinism
  8. farming method in which only hand tols are used; tyical of most neolithic societies
    Horticulture
  9. Pertaining to the size or rate of increase of human populations
    demographic
  10. The short stem by which an individual seed attatches to the main stalk of a plant as it developes.
    Rachis
  11. a plant that is wholly dependent on humans, a domesticate
    Cultigen
  12. Referrin to the analysis and interpretation of the remains of ancient plants recovered from the archaeological record.
    Achaeobotanical
  13. Small grained cereal grasses native to asia and africa
    Millet
  14. a cereal grass. some subspecies are grown for food grains, others for juicy stalk
    Sorghum
  15. species of tropical plant with an edible starchy root
    taros
  16. "Linned pottery" refers to a neolithic ceramic ware widel found in central europe.
    Bandkeramic
  17. Seed bearing member of the genus "Chenopodium" cultivated by early peruvians
    Quinoa
  18. Southern mexican state bordering the pacific ocean
    Oaxaca
  19. A mexican state located on the gulf coast south of texas
    Tamaulipas
  20. A dry highland region on the boundary of the states of Puebla and Oaxaca in southern mexico
    Tehiacan Valley
  21. The native grass thought to be ancestral to maize
    Teosinte
  22. Periodic climate instability, related to temporary warming of pacific ocean waters, which may influence storm patterns and rain for several years.
    El Nino
  23. Prehistoric farming culture of southern arizona
    Hohokam
  24. Prehistoric village culture of northern mexico and aouthern arizona
    Mogollon
  25. Hypothesis involving demographic stresses. People became packed together in regions as a result of environmental changes. this lead to competition and a more variation in food.
    "packing model" ---Binford

    -mesolithic and epipaleolithic sites
  26. At the end of the last ice age, the near east got very dry and arid which caused people and animals to clutter in fertile areas...animals eventually become domesticated. It was the first evidence of domestication in mountains.
    Oasis theory- Gordon Childe
  27. "Epipaleolithic", near eastern culture began cultivating cereals, taking control of animals and establishing sedentary settlements afetr 12 kya.
    Natufian
  28. Late pleistocene/ early halocene period containing foragers and gatherers n the near east and asia.
    Epipaleolithic
  29. Cultural hypothesis, status promoted food production. Local chiefs gain status and power with big feasts, competing with eachother.
    (Brian Hayden) Feasting Model
  30. Ceremonial even where the village chief publicly gives away food and goods signifying wealth. Also an opportunity to redistribute surplus foods and goods amoing people in response to shortage
    Potlach
  31. Cultural activity, all activities associared with planting, herding, processing domesticates plants and animals
    Agriculture
  32. Evolutionary process, state of interdependence betweeen humans and selected plant/animal species; requires genetic transformation of wild species.
    Domestication
  33. Domesticated maize VS. Teosinte (wild corn)
    Domesticated maize has : Tougher rachis, reduced gkume (outter coveriing of the seed), larger seeds, increased cob length, and more seed rows.
  34. What are some indirect evidence from technology and human remains
    • - Dental Caries cavities from starchy foods
    • -natufian grinding toold
    • -Natufian gazelle horn sickel
  35. Natufians located in this region, began domesticating plants and animals
    Fertile Crescent
  36. West bank area, possibly wolrds oldest city with watch towers and large walls. specialized trade or religious activities promoted early development into relatively large and complex neolithic commmunities. . Not considerd an urban center/city/state
    jericho
  37. Form of farming aroun 7 kya. Bredding/ managing large herds of domesticated herbivores
    Nomadic Patroalism
  38. This forced humans and animals to live along the nile river in africa
    Desertification
  39. Old world farming in _____area :
    - Interdependent domestication same time as near easst
    - Increased sedentism, complex material culture, social stratification
    - wetland rice., millet, pigs, water buffalo, chicken
    Asia
  40. Farming was brought into europe by either of these two mechanisms:
    • 1) brought bby neolithic immigrants from near east
    • 2) adoption of farming by local european mesolithic groups.
  41. STATEMENT
    • Spread of agriculture was faster in old world, pl emphasized domesticating plants in the new world.
    • - Mesoamerica= maize, beans, squash, peppers
    • -S. America= potatoes, peanuts, cotton
    • - N. America= gourds and sunflower
  42. 4 kya, this continent was a mosaic of chiefdoms ( regional political societies in whcih hereditary chiefs rules over a ranked heiarchy)
    North America
  43. Chiefdoms into complex societies and empires in these regions
    Mesoamerican and south america
  44. Mesoamerican chiefdom; includes San Lorenzo and La Venta
    The Olmec
  45. Geographically strategic plateau which allowed for wide range trade networkds. Dominant olmec center in gulf of mexico
    San Lorenzo
  46. Important olmec center that was established after the decline of San Lorenzo. Earthen mounds, plazas, redidential housing, large Anthromorphic basalt heads & columns
    La Venta
  47. Major mya citiy-states
    Takal, Copan, Palenque
  48. Society which used math, writing, calendars, astronomy,temple pyramids, pollychrome pottery, shifting political alliances, and warfare
    The Maya
  49. This classic maya city held 5,00 structures. Its inscriptions on stela ( stone slabs) help trace dynasty, it held a strategic posistion for trade, religious temples, great plaza, used bloodletting
    TIKAL
  50. One of the largest cities in the world. Strategically placed on trade routes NW of the maya area & controlled obsidian. 600 pyramid like structures, workshops, market places. Pyramid of moon, sun, and avenue of trhe dead
    Teotihuacan
  51. This empire grew in power after the fall of teotihuacan unbtill the spanish conquest in the year 1519.
    The aztec Empire
  52. Aztec capital city located on an island in lake texoco (mexico). Had huge walled ceremonial central plaza of temples, shrines & ball courts. pop= 1mmillion
    Tenochtitlan
  53. Characteristics of the Aztecs
    • kept codiacs ( illustrated books)
    • social stratification ( kind rules & controlled other states)
    • human sacrafice & blood letting were used to praise deities
  54. This area held the earliest complex centers that are contemporary with egyptian pyramids. Two societies: Coral ( 1,00 yrs older than any other society in the americas) and Moche
    South America
  55. Moche
    • North coast of peru
    • potters, metallurgists
  56. moche site. evidence of ritual one on one combat & sacrafice amoing moche elite.
    70 skeletons found mostly males
    murals depict human sacrafice
    Cerro Blanco (Huaca de la Luna)
  57. This civilization used stone temples, plazas, houses ect.
    -had a cuzco ( political & economic ritual center)
    -the city plan was in the shape of Puma ( the head fortress). -had a golden temple.
    -Used a recording system based on Quipa (Knotted cords which ahvnt been interpreted yet)
    - Chicha: maize beer
    -water canals
    THE INCA
  58. 15th century Peru. A carfeully planned inca town in Peru with plazas, temples, residences, stone watter channels &cisterns
    Machu Pitchu
  59. This person ranked humans in a heiarchial format based on skin color
    Linnaeous 1735
  60. This person added the term "caucasian" also ranked society according to skin color
    Bluemenbach
  61. These two people ranked humans in a heiarchial format based on skull size. Connected skull size with race & superiority
    brocca & Morton
  62. This person ranked humans based on blood type.
    A.C. Hadden
  63. Traits that are influenced by two or more genes. Allow a wide range of physical traits such as eye color, skin color, weight and height.
    Polygenetic traits
  64. Species composed of populations that differ with regard to the expression of one or more traits. Ex: Homo sapiens
    Polytypic species
  65. why is race not a valid concept from a genetic perspective?
    • -a lack of polymorphic loci variations amoung humans. Loci= ( the portion of dna that determines dissimilarity)
    • - Needs to be 20% variation in a species but humans have 2.3%
  66. The concept that various aspects of behavior are giverned by biological/ genetic factors.
    --Assiciating behanviors to skin and hair color
    Biological determinism
  67. The philosophy of 'race improvement", the sterilization of members of some groups & increased reproduction of others.
    Eugenics
  68. This biological determinist supported govnt control of marriages and family size
    Francis Galton
  69. Supported polices of segregation & apartheid of people with "disgenic traits" in order to protect the well born from contamination
    The american Eugenics movement
  70. In this court case, a woman and her mother was sterilized because she had an illegitimate child. Supreme court justice Oliver Homes
    Buck VS. Bell
  71. pre-implantation genetic selection (PGS). embryo testing for tissue matching (prodcue baby for donor purposes)
    Genetic Engineering
  72. 32 acre site in south central turkey. Larger and later city than jericho. Served as a trade & religious center during neolithic times .
    Catalhoyuk "forked mound"
  73. Contemporary settlements which remained modest villages.
    jarmo (iraq), Cayonu (Turkey), and Hacilar (Turkey)
  74. a governmental entity that persists by politically controlling a territory. has social classes, concept of citizenship, bureacracies, use of force, and other types of governing and institutions
    state
  75. The larger social order that includes states related by langueage, traditions, history, economic ties, and other shared cultural aspects
    Civilization
  76. Urban centers that both support and are supported by a hinterland of lesser communities. social complexity, nonkin organization and the concentration of specizlized agricultural roles.
    Cities
  77. Earliest true city yet discovered, in southern Iraq. Associated with the sumerian civilization of the southern Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Had remnants of massive mud brick temples and housing ( housed tens of thousands of ppl)
    URUK
  78. This person described the evolution of political society as one that in its simplist form is egalitarian. (Paleolithic hunter gatherer groups are egalitarian)
    Morton Fried
  79. Examples of ranked societies. These are not "class" societies
    neolithic farming villages in the near east and mississippian chiefdoms in eastern N.America
  80. Example of stratified society
    Natchez, which is a native american group of west mississippi; this society was rigidly heiarchial.
  81. This person specified traits that he believed contributed to the evolution of early civilizations. Said civilization was an outgrowth of increasing productivity, social complexity, and economic advantage
    Gordon Childe
  82. Land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, mostly included in modern day Iraq
    mesopotamia. "middle river"
  83. Early culture of mesopotamia; predecessor to sumerian civilization. barley, wheat, milleta and vegetable crops were used. cultural uniformity
    Ubaid
  84. Ubaid culture
    • Towns: Nippur, eridu, Uruk.
    • centered around a platform based temple, had shrines. decorated pottery, obsidian..ect.
    • irrigation systems & concentrated populations
  85. urban centers that form autonomous sociopolitical units
    City-states
  86. Uruk makred the beginning of this first complex civilization in mesopotamia
    Sumerians
  87. Sumer Region
    This region held about a dozen large autonomous political units called city states in the southern most Tigris-Euphrates Valley.
  88. Sumerian Culture
    • urbanized and technological culture
    • economically dependent of large sclae agriculture & specialization.
  89. Cuneiform
    Wedged Shape writing of ancient mesopotamia.
  90. early babylonian king
    Hammurabi
  91. Late babylonian King, reclaimed dominance of ancient mesopotamian lands after hammurabi
    Nebuchadnezzar
  92. The Narmer Palette
    Commemorating the unification of upper & lower egypt under pharaoh Narmer,
  93. Giza
    Old kingdom pyramid complex and great sphinx; located southwest of cairo
  94. Valley of the Kings
    desert valley near thebes. more than 50 New Kingdom pharoahs tombs are found
  95. Tutankhamen
    (king Tut) Egyptian pharoah of the New Kingdom period, died at age 19
  96. a 425 year span that represented the firtst full flowering of the Nile Vally civilization.
    The Old Kingdom
  97. Territorial State
    A form of state political organization with multiple administrative centers and one or more capitals. cities housed the elite and administrative classes, everyone else lived in surrounding areas.
  98. Indus valley
    • (harrapan/indus civilization) collection of urban settlements that dotted a broad floodplain far to the east.
    • For centuries, the indus river valley supported at least five primary urban centers.
    • trade was the integrative forse behind indus urbanization.
    • elaborate middle class society..nothign extravagant.
  99. Harrappa
    • Large indus site in pakistan
    • raised on massive brick terraces above the river
    • first efficient sewer systems
    • decline very rapid
  100. Xis Dynasty
    • Northern China, known as the dawn of chinese civilization.
    • -walled palaces set above ground is first seen here, royal burilas, stone carvings
  101. Shang Dynasty
    • Followed the Xia Dynasty. 6 centuries....had a level of sophistication in material culture, architecture, art styles, and writing. chinas first civilization.
    • -unlike the Indus civilization, the Shang territorial state covered multiple cities and a large territorial state
  102. 4,00 years ago, this continent was a mosaic of chiefdoms
    North america
  103. The Olmec
    • -Mesoamerican chiefdom
    • - san lorenzo and la venta
  104. San lorenzo
    • Geographically strategic location allowed for trade networks
    • -dominant olmec center in gulf of mexico
    • -decline led to la venta
  105. La Venta
    • -Olmec center after decline of San Lorenzo\
    • -housing, earthen mounds, human life shapes of humans made from basalt heads (anthromorphic)
  106. The Maya
    • Major maya city states: Tikal, Palenque, Copan
    • -math, writing, calendars, shifting political systems, aliiances, warfare.
  107. Tikal
    • -5,000 structures
    • -Guatemala, largest classic maya city
    • -inscriptions on stela (stone slabs) that trace dynasty
    • - strategic posistion for trade
    • -temples emphasized religious importance
    • -bloodletting
  108. Teotihuacan
    • -One f the largest cities in the world
    • -strategically located-> trade routes controlled obsidian
    • -600 pyramid structures
    • **pyramid of sun, moon and avenue of the dead.
  109. Aztec Empire
    • -After fall of teotihuacan, then declined at spanish conquest
    • -capital: tenochtitlan
  110. Tenochtitlan
    • -Aztec capital located on lake texcoco in mexico
    • -huge walled ceremonial central plaza of temples, shrines, ball courts.
    • - pop i million
    • -codiacs, social stratification, human scrafice to praise deities.
  111. South American civilizations
    Caral, Moche, Cerro Blanco, Inca, Machu Pichu
  112. Caral civilization
    • South american civilization
    • 1,000 years older than any other civilization in the americas
  113. Moche
    • south american civilization
    • n coast of peru
    • pottery portrait jobs
  114. Cerro Blanco
    • -moche site
    • -evidence of ritual one on one combat and sacrafice amoung moche elite
    • - 70 skeletons all males found
  115. The Inca
    • -cuzo = political economic ritual center
    • -city plan was shape of puma, head=fortress
    • - GOLDEN TEMPLE, religious focal point
    • - QUIPA: recording system with knotted chords
    • -CHICHA: maize beer
    • -water canals
  116. Machu Pichu
    • 15th century peru
    • carefully planned Inca town
  117. The Toltecs
    • -arised after fall of mayan civilization teotihuacan.
    • -very poer, very presitgious
    • -capital: Tula
    • -commerical & military enterprise, trade routes
    • -drought & aztecs led to fall
  118. Nasca
    -Non state theocracy in south central peru near the coast.
  119. Chimor
    • -Kingdom of north coast peru in Moche valley
    • - advanced burial ceremonies
  120. What are the subfields of anthropology
    cultural, biological/physical, archaeological, and linguistic.
  121. what is biological evolution?
    any change in % between generations
  122. The father of genetics...founded this type of inheritance
    Gergor mendel..mendelian inheritance. used pea plants to explore how phenotypes are expressed
  123. why is mendel genetics important?
    • -provides info missing from darwins theory
    • -confirms evolution
    • -conserves variation
    • -difference between phenotype and genotype
  124. Pleiotropy
    a signle gene might many effects.
  125. Principles of segregation
    genes occur in pairs that separate during meiosis. (cell division that makes gametes; sex chromosomes)
  126. Principles of Independent assortment
    genes dont arent always inherited together
  127. codominance
    both genes expressed in phenotype
  128. Osteology
    Study of skeletal material.
  129. Paleopathology
    branch of osteology that studies the traces of disease and injury in human skeletons
  130. Three hypothesis about life and the world that took place before the scientific revolution
    • Youth: world is very young
    • Design: world designed to have structure and order
    • Stasis: all life created as it exists in present (fixity of species)
    • Fullness: worl=complete, no new species can enter world or become extinct.
  131. Great chain of being
    • -Scala naturae
    • -heiarchial ranking of matter and life
    • -chain= fixed, objects cant change posistion
  132. Scientific Revolution
    new ideas=rejected (heliocentricsm) and the development of new ideas
  133. John Ray
    • developed concept of species.
    • also recognized that species frequently shared similarities with other species, which he grouped together in another in genus's
  134. Carolus Linnaeus
    • -Developed method to classify plants and animals that became basis for taxonomy
    • -system of natue
    • -established system of Binomial nomenclature
    • -added two categories:class and order.
  135. jean-baptiste Lamarck
    • -explained evolutionary process
    • -enviroment affects species.
    • -inheritance of acquired characteristics
  136. Georges Cuvier
    • -Introduced the concept of extinction to explain the
    • dissapearnce of species represented by fossils.
    • -used theory of fixity of species
    • -theory of catastrophism
  137. Charles Lyell
    • -founder of modern geology
    • -uniformitarianism
  138. Uniformitarianism
    geological processes observed in the present are the same as those that occured in the past
  139. binomial nomenclature
    genus and species names are used to refer to species
  140. Taxonomy
    branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
  141. Alfred Wallace
    • - theorized that species were descended from other species, and the appearance of new species was due to environmental factors.
    • -evolution driven by competition and natural selection
  142. population
    Groupd of individuals that mate with eachother. variation within a population helps us measure and track evolution.
  143. What is vairation and what are the two types
    • - inherited diff amoung individuals.
    • -Discrete: present or absent
    • -Continuous: measurable, polygenetic
  144. What is a mutation
    • -an unpredictable change in DNA
    • -only way to produce new genes (hemoglobin&sickle cell)
  145. gene drift
    • -increases diversity
    • -random evolutionary changes; no new genes added to pop., gene frequencies are altered.
    • -Founder Effect
    • - Bottle neck
  146. Founder Effect
    Loss of genetic variation when a new population is established by a small number of individuals from a larger population
  147. Bottleneck
    even in which great % of a population is prevented from producing (decrease in genetic variation in a species)
  148. Gene Flow
    • - Decreases diversity
    • -random exchange of genes between populations
  149. Natural Selection
    • relies on four things:
    • - overproduction of offspring
    • - competition of resources
    • -genetic variation
    • -differential reproduction (some survive, some die)
  150. Stabilizing Selection
    • selection acts against extremes, favors avg traits in a population
    • ex: baby weights being not too big or small
  151. Directional selection
    favors one extreme phenotype away from another extreme
  152. Disruptive selection
    favors both extremes over the avg
  153. Biological Species Concept
    • -Group of interbreeding populations thats reproductively isolated from other groups.
    • -must be able to produce offspring that can reproduce.
    • (horse&donkey-->mule is put into diff species)
  154. Speciation
    process by which a new species evolves from an earlier one...requires isolation
  155. allopatric speciation
    speciation by geographic isolatioin
  156. homologies
    physical similarities amooung organisms that are shared through common evolutionary descent ( humerous bone in whales and humans)
  157. analogies
    similarities amoung organisms based strictly on common function not descent
  158. Homoplasy
    • -Leads to analagies
    • -the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in differnet groups of animals.
  159. Evolutionary systemics
    • -traditional approach to classification
    • -evolutionary relationships between species depicted using a phyloggenetic tree
  160. Phylogenetic tree
    • -phylogeny chart
    • -shows evolutionary relationships
    • -contains time factor
    • -iploes ancestral-descendent relationships
  161. cladistics
    evolutionary relationships depicted in a cladogram
  162. cladogram
    focuses on derived traits, diagram of evolutionary relationships with no time factor
  163. derived trait
    present in descendent but not ancestor (bipedal humans but not apes)
  164. ancestral trait
    a homology thats present in both ancestor and descendent
  165. clade
    a group of orgganisms that share a common ancestor
  166. Austrailopithecines
    • - 2 genera: austrailopithecus (older) &paranthropus
    • -bipedal, small brained, large teeth w/ thick enamel, prognathic face
  167. Austrailopithecus anamensis
    • -kenya, oldest species of austrailopithecines, thought to be ancestral to paranthropus
    • - tibia shows evidence of bipedalism, finger bones are curved- climbed trees?
  168. Austrailopithecus garhi
    - Ethiopia
  169. ´╗┐´╗┐Austrailopithecus afarensis
    • - Ethiopia, and Tanzania
    • -60-100 individuals found
    • -reduced canine teeth & diff morphology in tooth rows, thick dental enamel
    • -brain size smaller than chimps
    • -sexually dimorphic
  170. Austrailopithecus laetoli
    • Tanzania
    • footprints preserved in volcanic ash
    • child found in Dikika ethiopia
  171. Austrailopithecus sediba
    • -S. Africa (youngest species of austrailopithecus)
    • - new species, 4 individuals have been found
    • -smaller brain than A.afarensis but similar in shape to H.sapiens
  172. Austrailopithecus africensus
    • S. African cave sites packed with bones
    • taugh child found had a natural endocast
  173. Homo ergaster
    • Older, evolved within africa from earlier homo ancestor. populations left africa and gave rise to erectus
    • - smaller brain
    • -lighter built cranial bones &smaller browridgess
  174. Homo erectus
    • larger brain
    • robust/thick cranial bones
    • larger browridges
  175. Nariokotome
    • -Homo ergaster
    • -large..tall limp proportions
  176. Dmanisi
    • -"the old man"
    • -small body compared to e. african ergaster (alike habilis)
    • -very primitive stone tools
    • -fossils found on volcanoe->potassium-argon analysis
    • - 1st hominin to leave africa
  177. H.erectus in China and indonesia
    got there fast ans stayed a while
  178. Zhoukoudian Cave
    • H. erectus in china
    • large brains w/ thick craniofacial bones
    • -largest collection og H.erectus
    • -associated with stone tools
  179. H. ergaster & H. erectus
    • -tool users
    • - H.erectus probably derived from ergaster
    • -have larger brains(like homo sapiens) and are taller
    • -tools= reduction in teeth
  180. Mosaic Evolution
    pattern in which physiological and behavioral systems evolve at different times..
  181. Hominin
    bipedalism, brain size, and toolmaking behaiviors
  182. Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • Found in chad, and is found to be the dated earlier than the earliest supposed homidids.
    • Fossil found had a combinatiion of charateristics of apes (small brain) and hominins (no protruding lower face)
  183. Sahelanthropus orrion
    • Central kenya in the tugen hills and from the middle awash area of ethiopia.
    • about a million years later than sahelanthropus
    • also bipedal locomotion
  184. Sahelanthropus aripithecus
    • middle awash in the Afar Triangle of ehtiopia
    • last group thought to date to late micene (earlier than 5,000)
    • biped
  185. Foramen magnum
    will be posistions more forward in bipedal
  186. grade
    grouping of organisms sharing a similar adaptive pattern
  187. Sites of oldowan tools
    • -East africa
    • -dmanisi georgia
    • -Atapuerca in spain
  188. Acheulian tool industry
    • 1.4 million years ago- lower paleolithic
    • - africa, near east
    • - more diverse & complex
    • -bifacial stone tools
    • soft hammer percussion
  189. Soft hammer percussion
    a hammer made of flexible material is struck against a core. the flexible material absorbs some of the force,, giving the user greater control over the size and shape of the flakes
  190. Oldowan tool industry
    • -lower paleolithic
    • - name comes from oldowan sites found at Olduvai gorge locations
    • -hard hammer percussion
    • -expedient tools
    • -early Homo
  191. Dmanisi
    • -Republic of Georgia
    • -very early dispersal to southeastern europe of small bodied, small brained H.erectus.
  192. Nariokotome
    beautifully preserved nearly complete skeleton, best postcranial evidence of h.erectus
  193. Homo habilis
    • -plio-pleistocence hominin found from Olduvai gorge.
    • -larger brain than austrailopiths
    • -early olduvai tool makers
    • -KNM-ER 1470 &1813
  194. Paranthropus
    • -largest teeth=rough foods
    • -sagittal crest, flat face, large jaw
    • -1st member of this evolutionary group (clade) comes from lake Turkana in kenya "black skull"
    • -smallest cranial capacity of hominins
    • -mix of primitive &derived traits
  195. "Black skull"
    • -paranthropus found in Lake Turkana
    • -bcause of mixed characteristics, its placed between earlier A.afarensis and later Paranthropus
    • -new specis--> paranthropus aethiopicus
  196. Paranthropus boisei
    • -small cranial capacity & large robust faces with massive teeth
    • - since these somewhat later east african paranthropus follsils are so rubst, they are placed in own species
  197. Honing complex
    primates such as gorillas have this, in which their canine cuts food
  198. Lucy
    40% complete skelton of adult female A.afarensis, found in east africa
  199. Austrailopithecus robustus
    robust australopithecine from south africa that may have descended from a. afarensis was contemporaneous with a. boisei and had robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face and heavy muscle attachments
  200. Homo erectus
    early homo species and likely descendant of h. habilis; first hominid species to move out of africa into asia and europe
  201. Mousterian
    stone tool culture in which neandertals produced tools using levallois technique
  202. Middle paleolithic
    middle part of old stone age, associated with mousterian tools, neandertals produced using levallois technique
  203. Levallois
    distinctive method of stone tool production used during middle paleolithic, core was prepared and flakes removed from surface before final tool was detached from core.

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