- MIS- Management Information Systems
- Help managers monitor and control a business by providing information on the firm’s performance.
•Regularly scheduled reports based on data from TPS – prespecified content, format and time period
•E.g., summary of monthly or annual sales for each of the major sales territories of a company
•Exception reports – produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action
•Trigger points – the parameters or criteria for initiating an exception report
- DSS- Decision support systems
- –Interactive information system consisting of hardware, software, data, and models (mathematical and statistical) designed to assist decision makers in an organization
–Support semistructured and unstructured tasks
–Support decision makers at all organizational levels
–Incorporate the human element as well as hardware and software
–Use both internal and external data
–Include mathematical and statistical models for complex analysis
- •Earliest DSS were model-driven:
•A model of the situation/problem is developed, various input factors are changed, and the output changes are measured.
•Use OLAP and data mining to analyze large pools of data in major corporate systems
- COMPONENTS OF DSS
- •DSS database: collection of current or historical data from a number of applications or groups
•DSS user interface – permits easy interaction between users of the DSS and the DSS software program and analysis tools
•DSS software system
•Data mining tools
•Mathematical and analytical models
- Model: a simplified representation or abstraction of reality that illustrates the components or relationships of a phenomenon
•Statistical models help establish relationships.
•E.g., relating product sales to differences in age, income, or other factors
•Optimization models – determine optimal resource allocation to maximize or minimize specified variables
•Forecasting models used to forecast or predict future performance or behavior
- Sensitivity analysis models
•What-if analysis – makes a hypothetical change to the data and observes the impact on the results; “what will happen”
•Goal seeking analysis – setting a target value or “goal” to achieve, then determining “how to get it”
- ESS-Executive Support System
- •Help senior managers address strategic issues and long-term trends
•Address non-routine decision making (semi-structured or unstructured)
•Draw summarized information from MIS, DSS, and data from external sources
•Typically use portal with Web interface to present content
•Used to monitor organizational performance, track activities of competitors, identify changing market conditions, spot problems, identify opportunities, and forecast trends
- Most ESSs offering the following capabilities
- •Consolidation – involves the aggregation of information and features simple roll-ups to complex groupings of interrelated information
– enables users to get details, and details of details, of information; provide details behind the summary values on a key-indicator or exception report
• Slice and Dice
– looks at information from different perspectives
- GDSS-Group decision support system
- •Interactive, computer-based systems that facilitate solving of unstructured problems by set of decision makers.
•Used in conference rooms with special hardware and software for collecting, ranking, storing ideas and decisions.
•Promote a collaborative atmosphere by guaranteeing contributors’ anonymity.
•Support increased meeting sizes with increased productivity.