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simple form of learning in which an organism comes to associate or anticipate events
a stimulus that provokes a response that hasn't been conditioned yet.
(i.e a loud noise makes a baby cry. the loud noise is the US)
an unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus.
(i.e a loud noise makes a baby cry. the crying is the UR)
same as a neutral stimulus
elicits a conditioned response because it has been associated repeatedly with a stimulus that already has a response.
One day last summer, my cat, Coconut was chased by a dog. Although she wasn't hurt, she was very frightened. Now if Coconut is outside, and person walks a dog past our house, Coconut immediately runs to the door of the house to be let in. Identify the elements of classical conditioning:
- UCS: dog that chased cat
- UCR: being frightened
- CS: dog being walked
- CR: running to door
a learned response to a conditioned stimulus
successive steps in order to reach a behavioral goal
sucessive approximations of the target response are reinforced, leading to the performance of a complex sequence of behaviors.
occurs when the relationship between the behavior and response change.
repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
in operant conditioning (repeated behavior without the reinforcer)
provides clues/ signals as to when an operant (the voluntary behavior that you want to reinforce) will be reinforced.
reoccurance of an extinguished response as a function of the passage of time
reinforcer that when presesnted increases the desired behavior.
(i.e teacher approval is presented when students study which makes the students want to study more)
tendency for a conditioned response to be evokes by a stimuli that are similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned.
(i.e getting a dog to salivate for a circle and then the dog stretching that stimulus to encompass ovals)
reinforce that when taken away increases the desired response
(i.e a teacher who usually disapproves a student removes her disapproval when the student studies which makes the student study more)
learning a new concept in life, however, the knowledge is not immediately expressed. Instead, it remains dormant, and may not be available to consciousness, until specific events/experiences might need this knowledge to be demonstrated
which it has learned to behave helplessly, even when the opportunity is restored for it to help itself by avoiding an unpleasant or harmful circumstance to which it has been subjected.
often caused by child abuse
evolutionary perspective believes that animals and humans are more likely to develop aversions that are adaptive in their environments like taste
getting sick or having an unpleasant experience with food makes you more likely to form an aversion to that food later on.
an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses an unwanted behavior.
effects of punishment
- less likely to develop internal moral standards
- connected to poor child-parent relationships
- act more aggressive other kids
- more likely to engage in crime later on
- more likely to future spouse--significant other
- acquistion of knowledge and skills through observing others (models).
- people learn behaviors more quickly when watching a model that they can closely identify with
efers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic Motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather working towards an external reward