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What is the primary function of red blood cells?
transportation of gases
White blood cells are primarly involved in:
detecting and combating pathogens
Little cell fragments that secrete clotting factors are called:
A membrane consists of what two components?
epithelium supported by a connective tissue
List three places we might find mucous membrane in the human body.
- lining the digestive tract
- lining most of our airways
- any cavity of the body exposed to the environment
Where in the human body do we encounter serous membrane?
any cavity of the body NOT exposed to the environment
What do we commonly call our cutaneous membrane?
Where in the human body will you find synovial membrane?
lining the joint capsules
List the three functions of the integumentary system that synthesize materials.
- production of vitamin D
- production of melanin
- keratin synthesis
List the five functions of the integumentary system involving regulation and protection.
- protection against the environment
- excretion and absorption
- blood resevoir
- detection of cutaneous sensation
The bottom 2/3 of a hair are known as the:
The upper 1/3 of a hair is called the:
The parts of a hair below the skin are known as the:
List the three outer three layers of the hair from outside to inside.
- connective tissue sheath
- outer root sheath
- inner root sheath
List the three layers of a hair proper from outside to inside.
List the three phases of hair growth.
- anagen - growth phase
- catagen - regression phase
- telogen - resting phase
Where are apocrine secretions released to?
onto a hair follicle
Where are eccrine gland secretions released to?
onto the eptithelial cell surface
List, in order, the layers of the epidermis.
- stratum basale
- stratum spinosum
- stratum granulosum
- stratum lucidum
- stratum corneum
It takes approximately ____ to _____ days for a cell to move from the stratum basale to the bottom of the stratum corneum. Once it reaches this point it will be another _______ days until it gets sloughed off.
How often does cell division occur in the epidermis?
every 19 days
In which layer do the epidermal cells undergo apoptosis?
List the five organelles found in epidermal cells.
- rough ER
- golgi apparatus
What is the last layer in which all of the cells are still living?
Which layer of the epidermis performs most, or all, of the cell division?
What is hemoglobin and what role does it play in skin color?
a pigment that contains iron and binds to oxygen giving skin a pink undertone
Describe the two stages of skin tone changes in response to UV radiation.
- 1st stage - develops quickly (1-2 hours), fades quickly (24 hours)
- 2nd stage - develops slowly (3 days), fades slowly (as skin cells slough off), actually synthesizes new melanin
List the six irregularites in skin color discussed in class.
- erythema - red tint
- jaundice - yellow tint
- cyanosis - blue tint
- pallor - pale tint
- albinisim - no melanin
- vitiligo - melanocytes stop working (MJ)
Define hydration and dehydration as they relate to the integumentary system.
- Hydration - take in water across the skin
- Dehydration - water leaves body across the skin
Transdermal drugs are used for drugs that are:
metabolized too quickly with conventional delivery