Morphology.txt

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emm64
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121975
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Morphology.txt
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2011-12-08 18:50:40
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Morphology FINAL
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Morphology FINAL
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  1. ´╗┐Occlusion
    anatomical alignment between the maxillary and mandibular teeth and their relationship to the rest of the masticatory system.
  2. centric occlusion
    • (aka ICP)
    • position of maximum intercuspation between the maxillary and mandibular teeth.
  3. Angle Classification
    • Orthodontic classification
    • Based on the ICP relationship between the 1st molars from the facial view.
    • Canines are used when the 1st molars are missing.
    • Angle Class I, II, or III
  4. Angle Class I
    • Canines are used when the 1st molars are missing.
    • The MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar aligns with the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar.
  5. Angle Class II
    The MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar aligns MESIAL to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar.
  6. Angle Class III
    The MB cusp of the maxillary 1st molar is DISTAL to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar.
  7. Overbite
    Vertical Overlap of anterior teeth
  8. Overjet
    Horizontal overlap of anterior teeth
  9. Coupled contacts:
    reciprocal and simultaneous contact of opposing supporting cusps in ICP.
  10. Mandibular Supporting Cusps
    • Premolar buccal and molar MB cusps make marginal ridge(occlusal embrasure) contacts called dipod contacts (D).
    • The DB cusps of mandibular molars make fossa contacts called tripod contacts (T).
  11. Maxillary Supporting Cusps
    • Premolar lingual cusps make fossa contacts in the distal fossa of the opposing mandibular premolar.
    • Molar ML cusps make fossa contacts in the central fossa of opposing mandibular molar.
  12. Requirements for ICP Stability
    • Well-distributed posterior contacts
    • Coupled contacts between opposing teeth
    • Overall tripoding of each tooth
  13. Caries and Periodontal Disease
    • Bacterial in origin
    • Highly preventable
    • -Regular professional care
    • -Good oral hygiene
    • -Public health measures
  14. Dental and Supporting Tissues
  15. Periodontal Disease
    • Group of infectious or inflammatory diseases that damage the periodontal (supporting) tissues
  16. Dental Caries: Tooth Decay
    • Demineralization and loss of calcified tooth tissues
    • Occlusal pits and fissures are sites commonly affected.
    • Lost tooth structure restored by ‘fillings’
    • Untreated caries may lead to pulp infection
  17. external root anatomy
    • Concavities, grooves, furcations
    • Anatomical Factors Requiring Consideration During Periodontal Tx
    • Furcations
    • Root grooves
    • Crown contours in gingival third
  18. Furcation
    • location on a multirooted tooth where the root trunk divides into separate roots
    • trifurcation, bifurcation
  19. Pulp and internal root anatomy
    Number of roots and canals/root
  20. Collapse Due to Disease
    • Loss of proximal contacts
    • Unstable ICP
    • Supraeruption
    • Mesial drift
  21. Why was the mandibular first molar the first tooth to be lost in this patient with extensive dental disease?
    • 1st non-succedaneous tooth ... oldest
  22. Name the anterior tooth most likely to have a bifurcation. Where is it located?
    • Mandibular Canine
    • Labial-Lingual roots
  23. Summarize features of dental anatomy that contribute to health of the periodontium
    • Proximal contacts
    • -Correct size and location
    • Embrasure form
    • -Symmetry and size
    • Marginal ridge height
    • -Same on adjacent teeth
    • Crown contours
    • -Especially in cervical third
    • Occlusal stability
    • -Well distributed ICP contacts
    • -Forces along long axis of each tooth
  24. How to locate a furcation entrance
    • Tooth surfaces involved
    • Location on each surface
    • Distance from CEJ
    • Ex: Mandibular 1st Molar
    • There are buccal and lingual furcation entrances.
    • Both are centered on that surface.
    • Distance from CEJ:
    • buccal = 3 mm
    • lingual = 4 mm
  25. Mandibular 1st Molar Furcations
    • There are buccal and lingual furcation entrances.
    • Both are centered on that surface.
    • Distance from CEJ:
    • buccal = 3 mm
    • lingual = 4 mm
  26. Maxillary Molar Furcations
    • *The mesial furcation entrance of a maxillary molar is located 2/3 of the distance from buccal to lingual on the mesial surface.
  27. Periodontal Problem Areas
    • Lingual of maxillary lateral incisor
    • Root surfaces of mandibular anteriors
    • Distal of maxillary canine
    • Mesial of maxillary first premolar
  28. Lingual groove of Maxillary Lateral Incisor
  29. Longitudinal Root Grooves
    • Prominent on distal root surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth
  30. Periodontal Problem Max canine and 1st PM
    • Note concavities on crown surfaces gingival to contact.
  31. Name the most periodontally fragile tooth.
    • Max 1st premolar (lots of concave areas)
    • 1.Longitudinal root grooves
    • 2.Mesial Marginal Developmental Groove
    • 3.Mesial Crown Concavity
    • 4.Bifurcation
  32. Summarize features of dental anatomy that contribute to the health of the periodontium.
    • 1.Proximal contacts (correct size and location)
    • ** correct embrasure size and proximal contact (not too buccal/lingual) Between #4 and #5
    • 2.Embrasure form (symmetry and size)
    • ** gingival embrasure form - overhang exists (large open surface going towards the occlusal surface; overflossing)
    • 3.Marginal ridge height (same on adjacent teeth)
    • 4.Crown contours (especially in cervical third)
    • ** contour is insufficient/flat; needs more in cervical third on the buccal
    • 5.Occlusal Stability (well distributed ICP contacts; forces along long axis of each tooth)
    • 6.Faulty Dentistry
    • *** 8 and 9 crowns producing inflamed gingival tissue (crowns too Bulbous -> irritating gums
    • Overhangs
  33. Anterior Pulp Anatomy
    • 6% of mandibular canines have two root canals.
  34. Premolar Pulp Anatomy
  35. Maxillary Molar Pulp Anatomy
    • 60% of maxillary 1st molars have two canals in the MB root.
  36. Mandibular Molar Pulp Anatomy
    • 30% of mandibular 1st molars have two canals in the distal root.
  37. Condyle Relationship to Laterotrusion
    • In LEFT Laterotrusion, the RIGHT Condyle moves anteriorly.
    • The Mediotrusive condyle moves anteriorly.
    • Therefore mandibular pathways on mediotrusive side have an posteriorly angled direction.
    • Angle is more distal for more posterior teeth.
    • The laterotrusive condyle stays is the pivot point.
  38. Maxillary pathways

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