Chapter 11

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  1. What is Puberty?
    Physcial changes which mark the transition from childhood to adulthood.

    Puberty = Adolescence.
  2. Know this about puberty!
    It occures 2-3 years earlier in girls than boys.
  3. Height
    • -First height increases for about 2 years, then decreases.
    • Height: Boys (14.5"), Girls (13")

    -Weight spurt increases 1.5 years after height, lasts 2 years, then decreases

    -Adolescents tend to look thing because of the lag in

    -Weight gain compared to height.

    -Adolescents eat an enormous amount of food to fuel this growth.
  4. Why do Adolexcents Often Look Awkward and Gawky?
    Because differnt parts of the body grow at differnt rates, called Asynchronous Growth.

    Hands hands and feet in boys, legs grow before chest/shoulders in girls.
  5. Why Do adolescents seem to be getting taller and maturing earlier
    -Because they are.

    -This is called Secular Trend, and is present in nearly all European countries and in the United States.

    • -What two factors appear to play a role in this trend?
    • 1) Better nutrition
    • 2) Better healthcare
  6. Pubertal Changes in Boys:
    -About 11012: Growth of testes (which speeds the development of testosterone)

    • -1 year later: Growth of penis.
    • -Soon thereafter: Pubic hair.
    • -By 15: underarm/facial hair.
    • -14-15: Voice deepens.
    • -Testosterone also causes acne.
    • -By 13-14: Frequent and unwanted erections.
    • -14-15: First nocturnal emission (spermarche) which shows the beginning produciton of semen.
    • -20-21: End of adolescents.
  7. Pubertal changes in Girls:
    -9-10: Estrogen stimulates the growht of breast tissue (called "breast buds") and they reach full size within 3 years.

    -Estrogen triggers growth of fatty tissue in the hips/butt. Hips widen.

    -Beginning at 11: underarm and pubic hair.

    -Estrogen causes growth of the labia, vagina and uterus.

    -Androgens cause the development of the clitoris.

    -Menarche (1st menstruation) usually occurs between 11-14 years, +/- 2 years. Occurs much earlier in girls for the past 150 years.
  8. What accoutns for the earlier age menarche?
    -Girls must reach a certain body weight to trigger pubertal changes such as menarche, called critical fat hypothesis

    -Menarche comes later to girls who have a low percentage of body fat (those with eating disorders/athletes)

    -Average body weight which triggers menarche depends on the girl's height.
  9. Question: Do girls ovulate when they start their first period?
    No, they ovulate 12-18 mo after mearche, but CAN ovulate during menarche.
  10. Body image:
    Adolescents are concerned about their physcial appearance

    More satisfied toward the end of adolesence.

    • Females: Weight/slimness
    • Males: Gain weight/build muscles
  11. What are the cognitive changes during adolescence?
    They have reached piaget's formal operational stage

    Remeber this is his hightest stage (age 11-12 to beyond)

    Adolescents have reached cognitive maturity according to piaget.
  12. During the formal operational stage the adolescent can:
    Classify objects or ideas

    Engage in logical thought

    Hypothesize in their investigations

    Group and classify symbols statements, and even theories.

    Follow and formulate arguments from their premises, to their conclusions and back (even if they don't believe in them. )
  13. Know about Formal Operational Thinking!
    It is flexible and reversible.
  14. Formal Operational Thinking is Characterized by 3 Cognitive Processes:
    Hypothetical Thinking

    Sophisticated Use of symbols

    Deductive reasoning
  15. 1. Hypothetical Reasoning
    Adolescents develop the concept of "what might be" rather than "what is."

    Try on differnt clothing as well as different attitudes.

    Realize that situations can have different outcomes.
  16. 2. Sophisticated use of symbols:
    Undersatnd x as an unknown (as used in algebra and geometry)

    Can perform mental operations with symbols (ex PEMDAS, and math/physcis/algebra, and skills for engineering, architecture.)

    Can understand, appreciate, and sometimes produce metaphors.
  17. 3. Deductive Reasoning
    Judge right and wrong in specific situations by reasoning deductively from moral principals.

    Decentration allows the adolescent to focus on many aspects of a situation at once to arrive at a moral judgement or to solve a moral dilemma.
  18. Question about gender differneces and cognitive abilities:
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