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  1. BERT:
    • background equivelent radiation time
    • helps pt understand by comparison the amount of radiation that they will be recieving.
  2. ALARA
    as low as reasonably achievable

    • in regards to exposure of radiation to the pt and to staff
    • keep radiation exposure and dose to lowest levels possible
    • biological response to ionizing radiation is directly proportional to the dose
  3. ORP
    optimization for radiation protection
  4. ALARA principle:
    • TIME: wear film badge, limit amount of time exposed to ionizing radiation
    • DISTANCE: recieve less radiation by standing further away from source
    • SHIELDING: protective barriers and equiptment
  5. radiation therapy is:
    • use of ionizing radiation to interrupt cellular growth (destroys DNA)
    • chosen when the treatment goal is curative as in Hodgkin's disease
    • or when tumor cannot be removed surgically
  6. X ray discovered
  7. 2 types of ionizing radiation:
    • electromagnetic rays (x-rays and gamma rays)
    • particles
  8. radiation cellular effects:
    • 20% direct effect: ionizing radiation causes break in DNA, causing cell lysis- cell death
    • 80% indirect effect: can also ionize body fluids, esp water in cell, leading to free radicals which cause irreversible damage to DNA
  9. when are cells most vulnerable to radiation?
    • during DNA synthesis and Mitosis
    • also tumors that are more well oxygenated are more sensative to radiation.
  10. radiosensitivity: highly sensative organs:
    bone marrow, lymph tissue, GI tract, mucous membranes, gonads
    • the higher the energy the deeper into the tissues it will penetrate
    • kilovoltage: superficial (skin and breast)
    • Gamma ray: deeper
    • linear accelerators and betatron: high energy to deeper structures without harming the skin
  12. high energy transfer radiation:
    • for hypoxic, radioresistant tumors with neutron beam theraphy, it damages target cells as well as those cells in its pathway.
    • like in surgery with the tumor exposed they shoot it
  13. Acute SE of radiation
    • most affected tissues are those that proliferate rapidly, from tx up to 6 months later
    • skin
    • epi lining of GI
    • bone marrow
    • fatigue, malaise, h/a, NV
  14. nursing care of raditaiton:
    • keep hydrated
    • gentle oral hygiene
    • avoid perfumes, deoderants, loose fitting clothess
    • apply topical steroids
    • diphenhydramine 2.5 mg q 6 hrs
    • if oozing (exudate) expose to air for 10-15 mins q 3 times daily
    • high dose radiation to localized areas, relaivly few number of days for treatment
    • partial breast radiation
  16. internal radiation
    • implants are more suitable for cancers that tend to remain LOCALIZED, can be combined with external treatment
    • systemic (taken orally)
  17. nursing care of an implant
    foley, bed rest, low residue diet, keep clean and dry, no peri care, flush twice
  18. SE of radiation:
    fever, late tissue breakdown, sloughing of tissue, bone necrosis, ulceration, fistulas
Card Set:
2011-12-09 07:22:25

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