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What is the key question asked during adolescence?
Who am I?
Erickson and Identity development:
Erickson felt that at this age we enter into a crisis between identity and role confusion. This crisis involves balancing the desire to try out many possible selves and the need to select a single self
Erickson believed the primary task of the adolescent is to develope an ego identity: a sense of who you are and what you stand for.
- Must consider:
- -Future occupation
- -Political beliefs
- -Relgious beliefs
- -Sexual orientation
- -Gender role behaviors
The ability to engage in formal operational thinking helps adolescents make these decisions.
Erickson believed adolescence is the a process of psychological Moratorium: a time out period where adolescents experiment with different roles, values, beliefs and relationships.
During this time adolescents often have an identity crisis: an examination of one's values and investigation into one's role in life.
Marcia built on erickson's approach and identifed 4 identity statuses:
- The 4 identity statuses represent four possible combinations of the dimensions of exploration and commitment that Erickson believed were important to the development of identity
- 1) Identity diffusion: have no commitment nor trying to form them.
- 2) Foreclosure: commitments based on identification with parents, teachers or religious leaders.
- 3) Moratorium: actively exploring alternatives in an attempt to make a choice.
- 4) Identity achievement: developed firm commitment to self and others.
Did you know?
The greatest identity formation occurs in college.
How does ethnicity influence the development of identity?
It is much more complicated for ethnic minority groups. Why?
If clutrual values conflict between values of dominant clutrue and their ethnic group then the adolescent needs to sort out the values that are most meaningful to them and incorporate those into their identity.
Experience discrimination and prejudice, have fewer role models and identity options--particularly for youth living in poverty.
Too much identification with dominant culture may lead to rejection from the minority group; however, rejecting the cominant cluture's values for that of the minority group may limit opportunities for advancement in the larger society.
Often have fewer educational and career opportunities.
Gender and Identity
Erickson felt that to women relationships (wife, mother) are most imporant to women's development of identity, while for men it is occupational and ideological matters.
- What does current research report?
- Few differences at all!
Though women are more likely to integrate occupational and family roles.
Development of self-concept in adolescence
Self concept becomes more differentiated (more characteristcs added to self description).
Adolescents incorporate psychological characteristics and social relationsips into self-descriptions.
More advanced formal operational thinking allows the adolescent to integrate many contradictory elements of themselves.
What happens to self-esteem in adolescence?
Lowest at 12 or 13 then rises gradually
Physical appearance contributes more to an adolescents self esteem than any other characteristic.
As adolescents develop academic, physical, and social skill, they may grow less critical of themselves which increaes self-esteem.
Emotional support from parents and peers is important, the more hightly regarded the teen feeels, the more likely positively they regard themselves.
how does relatipnship with parents and peers hcange during adolescence?
Heavily influenced by both.
- -spend much less time with them
- -interact more with mothers
- -less affectionate with them
- -Express increasing independence, yet still have close bond with them (esp. mom).
Conflict often occurs between what parents think they should control vs what the teenager thinks he/she should control. (ie chores, homework, curfew, dating, etc)
Know this about adolescents and parents
Those who feel close to parents more liekly to show greater self reliance, independence, higher self esteem, better school performance, fewer psychological and social problems.
True or False: Adolescents from authoritative homes show more competent behavior than other groups of teenages.