Baker's Exam 3: CNS Medications

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kmaher
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122057
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Baker's Exam 3: CNS Medications
Updated:
2011-12-08 22:50:41
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Dental Therapeutics
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CNS Medications
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  1. What antidepressant category are: Amitriptyline, Despiramine, Doxepin, Imipramine, and Nortriptyline?
    Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
  2. What antidepressant category is: Trazodone?
    What is Trazodone's most common use?
    Miscellaneous Antidepressant, Most often used as a sleep aid
  3. What antidepressant category are: Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Paroxetine, and Sertaline?
    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRIs)
  4. What antidepressant category are: Duloxetine and Venlafaxine?
    Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
  5. What antidepressant category are: Isocarboxazid, Phenelzine, Selegiline, and Tranylcypromine?
    Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOIs)
  6. What antidepressant categories are: Bupropion, Mirtazapine, and Lithium?
    • Bupropion: Aminoketone Antidepressant
    • Mirtazapine: Novel Alpha-2 Receptor Antagonist
    • Lithium: Lithium
  7. What categories of drugs make up the Antidepressants?
    TCAs, Misc. Antidep, SSRIs, SNRIs, MAOIs, and the individual agents - Aminoketone Antidep, Alpha-2 Rec. Antag., Lithium
  8. What anti-anxiety category are: Buspirone and Diphenhydramine?
    "Other" Anti-anxiety agents
  9. What anti-anxiety category are: Eszopiclone, Ramelteon, Zaleplon and Zolpidem?
    "Z" drugs
  10. What antipsychotic category is: Haloperidol?
    Butyrophenone
  11. What antipsychotic category are: Aripiprazole, Clozapine, Olanzepine, Quetiapine, Risperidone, and Ziprasidone?
    Atypicals
  12. What type of drugs are these: Carbamazepine, Clonazepam, Ethosuximide, Gabapentin, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Pregabalin, Phenytoic, Sodium Valproate, and Topiramate?
    Anticonvulsants
  13. What type of drugs are these: Carbidopa/Levodopa, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Rasagiline, Selegiline, and Entacapone?
    Antiparkinson's Drugs
  14. What type of drugs are these: Atomoxetine, Methylphenidate, Dexmethylphenidate, Dextroamphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, and Amphetamine Mixtures?
    ADD/ADHD
  15. Of the antidepressant categories which are the most dentally significant in terms of adverse effects?
    TCAs, MAOIs, and Lithium
  16. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the TCAs?
    • sedation
    • *Most severe xerostomia
    • orthostatic hypotension
    • tachycardia
  17. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the SNRIs?
    increased BP with venlafaxine
  18. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the SSRIs?
    • bruxism
    • nausea
    • insomnia
    • agitation
    • sedation
  19. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the Mirtazapine?
    • drowsiness
    • dizziness
    • weight gain
  20. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the Bupropion?
    • seizures (rare but serious)
    • agitation
    • insomnia
    • dry mouth
  21. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the Lithium?
    • tremor
    • taste disturbances
    • abnormal facial movements
  22. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the MAOIs?
    • orthostatic hypotension
    • tachycardia
    • HA
    • restlessness
    • insomnia
    • dizziness
    • overstimulation
    • dry mouth
  23. What adverse effect do most anti-anxiety agents produce? Which drug is the exception?
    Most are CNS Depressants except Buspirone
  24. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of Buspirone?
    • dizziness
    • nausea
    • HA
    • nervousness
  25. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the "Z" Drugs?
    CNS Depressants
  26. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of Haloperidol?
    Casuses the highest risk of movement disorders
  27. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the Atypical Antipsychotics?
    • Weight gain
    • Most are CNS Depressants; exception aripiprazole
    • QT interval prolongation; risk highest w/Ziprasidone and Quetiapine
  28. What adverse effect do most anti-epilepsy agents (AEDs) produce?
    All are CNS depressants and most predispose to blood dyscrasias and dermatologic/mucosal toxicity
  29. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of Phenytoin?
    • Gingival overgrowth
    • Possible Osteomalacia
  30. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of Sodium Valproate?
    Possible bleeding caused by dec. platelets or platelet activity
  31. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of Carbidopa/Levodopa?
    Can cause excessive movements including bruxism
  32. What are the common dentally significant adverse effects of the Miscellaneous Antiparkinsonian Drugs?
    Most side effects are not significant compared to dopaminergics
  33. What adverse effect do most ADD/ADHD have in common? Which drug is the exception?
    • They are all Schedule II amphetamines
    • CNS Stimulation: HA, Nervousness, dry mouth, insomnia, appetite suppression
    • Can increase BP and heart Rate
    • **EXCEPTION = Atomoxetine**
  34. What are the major treatment impacts for the Antidepressants?
    • TCAs: Epi intx w/high-dose TCA, additive CNS dep. w/ opoids and anti-anxiety agents, MOST SEVERE XEROSTOMIA
    • SNRIs: Additive CNS dep. w/Trazodone and opiods, LESS dry mouth, MOST LIKELY to INC BP, most likely to be used for neuropathic or chronic pain
    • SSRIs: Less dry mouth, avoid combo w/BZDP
    • Mirtazapine: BZDPs inc psychomotor impairment, min dry mouth
    • MAOIs: Limit epi to .04mg, avoid Meperidine, avoid decongestants and amphetamines
  35. What are the major treatment impacts for the Anti-anxiety agents?
    • BZDP: additive w/CNS depressants
    • Others:
  36. What are the major treatment impacts for the Antipsychotic agents?
    • Haloperidol: Little or no intx w/epi, xerostomia
    • Atypicals: Clozapine + BZDP = resp dep & hypotension as well as red. effects of opoids
  37. What are the major treatment impacts for the Anticonvulsant medications?
    • potentiated by CNS Dep
    • Sodium Valproate: possible bleeding
    • Phenytoin: Gingival overgrowth
  38. What are the major treatment impacts for the Antiparkinson's agents?
    • Levodopa can inc effects of epi
    • Pt mgmt is difficult due to movements and excessive saliva
  39. What are the major treatment impacts for the ADD/ADHD drugs?
    Possible inc caries

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