Card Set Information
CCT Pediatric emergencies
Age for newborns?
Birth - 12 hours
Age of Infant?
1 month - 12 months
Age of Toddler
Age of Preschool?
End of childhood - 18 years
How old is an infant before the fontenelle closes?
Infants and toddlers depend on this for adequate tidal volumes.
What is the oxygen consumption of a toddler and infant?
Why do you need to get a Bgl on all peds?
limited glycogen and glucose stores
How much fluid do you administer to a pediatric patient?
What are the 4 causes of upper respiratory obstruction?
Foreign body aspiration
What are the three causes of lower airway disease?
What age is foreign body aspiration more common?
under 4 years of age
What is Croup?
inflammatory of the upper respiratory tract involving the subglottic region
What is the main cause of Croup?
What age does Croup occur in?
6 months - 3 years
Mostly in boys
What are the indications of croup?
Barking (Seal or dog-like)or brassy cough
What is "Steeple sign"?
narrowing of the soft tissues on a neck x-ray that form a point.
Treatment for croup?
Oxygen- humidified or cool mist at 4-6Lpm
Meds-Racemic Epi, Albuterol, and Decadron
Position of Comfort and keep parents with them
What is Bacterial Tracheitis?
Bacterial infection of the upper airway, subglottic trachea, usually following viral croup
Occurs in children 1-5 yo
Uncommon, but more common around industrial facilities
What are the S/S of bacterial tracheitis?
coughing up pus/mucous
usually a history of croup
What age does Epiglottitis usually occur?
What is the pathophysiology of epiglottitis?
Cellulitis of the epiglottis
Bacterial infection, usually from hemophilus influenza type B
S/S of epiglottitis?
Rapid onset 6-8 hours
Drooling/unable to swallow
pale or cyanotic
Treatment for epiglottitis?
*Never attempt to visualize the airway if the pt is awake.
BVM if obstruction occurs
Consider needle crich as last resort
Treatment for Asthma?
Sub Q Epi 1:1000 if severe distress
position of comfort
keep with caregiver
What age does Bronchiolitis occur?
What is Bronchiolitis?
inflammation of lower resiratory tract
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of the lower airway
S/S of Brochiolitis?
May present similar to Asthma
Treatment of Brochiolitis?
Nebulizer Racemic Epi
S/S of Pneumonia?
Decreased breath sounds
Low Grade Fever
Treatment for Pneumonia?
Position of Comfort
What is the most common cause of pediatric siezures?
Treatment of siezures?
Ativan (preferred medication)
When should you suspect Hypoglycemia?
Whenever a child shows altered LOC with explainable cause.
Treatment for hypoglycemia?
D25 or D12.5
Glucogon if no IV
Repeat BGL in 10 minutes
What does Hyperglycemia lead to?
Treatment for Hyperglycemia?
IV-LR or NS for dehydration
Insulin and Potassium
Treatment for S/S of generalized infection of unknown etiology?
Treat the symptoms- siezure, fever, dehydration, etc.
What is Meningitis?
inflammation of the meninges identified by abnormal number of WBC in the CSF.
highest occurrence in children <1 yo
Which type of meningitis is worse, Bacterial or Viral?
What is Brudzinski's sign?
flexion of the hips/knees with the fassive flexion of the neck.
What is Kernigs sign?
Back pain resistance after flexion of lower legs
Treatment for Meningitis?
Broad spectrum antibiotics
Maintain MAP >50
Acyclovir for suspicion of HSV
Treat siezures with Ativan (acute) or Cerebyx (prevention)
Most common cause of cardiac arrest in children?
How to calculate the intubation tube size?
Age in years + 16 / 4
(or use Pinky finger)
Most common size of chest tube for peds?
What is the best ventilator setting for Peds?
What is the 4-2-1 Rule?
4 ml/kg for first ten kg
2 ml/kg for next ten kg
1 ml/kg for any additional kg
(For maintenance fluids only)
medical 10 ml/kg
trauma 20 ml/kg
first 0.5 joules/kg
all others 1.0 joules/kg
first 2.0 joules/kg
all others 4.0 joules/kg