A pigment that is the by-product of hemoglobin catabolism.
Parasympathetic motor neurons and sympathetic postganglionic fibers located between the circular and longitudinal layers of the muscularis externa
The pear-shaped reservior for bile after it is secreted by the liver
A cell whose meiotic division will produce a single ovum and three polar bodies.
Hormones released by specialized cardiocytes when they are stretched by an abnormally large venous return; promotes fluid loss and reduction in blood pressure and in venous return. Includes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
The dividion of a single cell nucleus that produces two identical daughter cell nuclei; an essential step in cell division.
Requiring the presence of oxygen
Pertaining to the stomach
An enlarged ovum or spermatozoon nucleus that forms after fertiliation but before amphimixis
Polyuria due to inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone
The principal androgen produced by the interstital cells of the testes.
The fusion of a secondary oocyte and a spermatozoon to form a zygote
Large salivary gland that secrete a saliva containing high concentrations of salivary (alpha) amylase.
Parotid salivary glands
A compound whose dissociations in solution releases a hydrogen ion and an anion; an acid solution has a pH below 7.0 and contains an excess of hydrogen ions
The external openins of the anal canal
Active transport between two limbs of a loop that contains a fluid moving in one direction; responsible for the concentration of urine in the kidney tubules.
A compound whose dissociation releases a hydroxide ion (OH2) or removes a hydrogen ion (H1) from the solution.
Chromosomes other than the X or Y sex chromosome.
A sac or pouch in the call of the colon or other organ
The large intestine
A bridle; usually referring to a band of tissue that restricts movement, e.g., lingual frenulum
The synthesis of glucose from protein or lipid precursors
A wave of smooth muscle contractions that propels materials along the axis of a tube such as the digestive tract, the ureters, or the ductus deferens
The production of milk by the mammary glands
A temporary structure in the uterine wall that permits diffusion between the fetal and maternal circulatory system.
An enzyme that breaks down the bonds between adjacent follicle cells; produced by some bacteria and found in the acrosomal cap of a spermatozoon
Physical characteristics that are genetically determined.
The middle germ layer, between the ectoderm and endoderm of the embryo
A fatty acid secreted by one cell that alters the metabolic activities or sensitivities of adjacent cells; also called local hormone
The period of intrauterine development; pregnancy
a portion of a DNA strand that functions as a hereditary unit, is located at a particular site on a specific chromosome, and codes for a specific protein or polypeptide.
Possessing two different alleles at corresponding sites on a chromosomes pair; the individual's phenotype is determined by one or both of the alleles
A period of rapid growth, sexual maturation and the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics; normally occurs at ages 10-15 years
Cells of the blastocyst that will form the body of the embryo.
inner cell mass
A class of steroid sex hormones that includes estradiol.
a genetic abnormality resulting from the presence of three copies of chromosome 21; individual with this condition have characteristic physical and intellectual deficits.
a noncellular pathogen
the premature loss or expulsion of an embryo or fetus
a newborn infant, or baby
A membranous sac at the tip of a spermatozoon that contains hyaluronidase.
Milk-producing glands of the female breast
An extraembryonic membrane, consisting of the trophoblast and underlying mesoderm, that forms the placenta
The gradual appearance of characteristic cellular specializations during development as the result of gene activation or repression
outside the normal location
One of the three primary germ layers; the layer on the undersurface of the embryonic disc; gives rise to the epithelia and glands of the digestive system, the respiratory system, and portions of the urinary system
The developental stage lasting for the start of the third developmental month to delivery.
The abnormal possession of three copies of a chromosome;
trisomy 21 is responsible for Down Syndrome
the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs during a normal quiet respiratory cycle.
The placental hormone that maintains the corpus luteum for the first 3 months of pregnancy
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
The inability to conceive; also call sterility
The connecting stalk between the fetus and the placenta; contains the allantois, the umbilical arteries, and the umbilical vein.
The attachment of a blastocyst into the endometrium of the uterine wall.
The rate of filtrate formation at the glomerulus
Glomerular filtration rate
The placental hormone that stimulates the functional development of the mamary glands
human placental lactogen (hPL)
The early stage in the developing embryo, consisting of a outer trophoblast and an inner cell mass
the study of mechanisms of heredity
The first meiotic division, which reduces the chromosome number from 46 to 23.
outside the body, in an artifical environment
The activation process that must occur before a spermatozoon can successfully fertilize an oocyte; occurs in the vagina after ejaculation
one of the three primary germ layers; covers the surface of the embryo and gives rise to the nervos system, the epidermis and associated glands and a variety of other structures
Fluid that fills the amniotic cavity; cushions and supports the embryo or fetus
cell division that produces gametes with half the normal somatic chromosome complement
growth and the acquisition of increasing structural and functional complexity; includes the period from conception to maturity
The formation of organs during embryological and fetal development
the thick layer of smooth muscle in the wall of the uterus.