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2011-12-08 23:49:40
Aqueous reactions stoichiometry

Chemistry Chapter 4
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  1. aqueous solution
    a solution in which water is the solvent
  2. solute
    • a substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution
    • normally the component present in the smaller amount in the solution
  3. solvent
    • the dissolving medium of a solution
    • normally the component present in the larger amount in the solution
  4. electrolyte
    a solute that produces ions in solutions

    an electrolytic solution conducts an electric current
  5. non-electrolyte
    a substance that does not ionize in water and consequently gives a non conducting solution
  6. strong electrolyte
    • a substance that completely ionizes in solution
    • strong acids, strong bases, and most salts
  7. weak electrolyte
    a substance that only partially ionizes in solution
  8. strong acid
    an acid that completely ionizes in water
  9. Name the seven strong acids
    • HCl hydrochoric
    • HBr hydrobromic
    • HI hydroiodic
    • HClO3 chloric
    • HClO4 perchloric
    • HNO3 nitric
    • H2SO4 sulfuric
  10. weak acid
    an acid that only partially ionizes in water
  11. strong base
    a base that completely ionizes in water
  12. Name strong bases
    • Group 1A metal hydroxides
    • LiOH
    • NaOH
    • KOH
    • RbOH
    • CsOH

    • Group 2A heavy metal hydroxides
    • Ca(OH)2
    • Sr(OH)2
    • Ba(OH)2
  13. weak base
    a base that only partially ionizes in water
  14. Ionic Salts
    produced by neutralization reaction between acid and metal hydroxides
  15. Molarity (M)
    the concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution
  16. dilution
    the process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution by adding solution
  17. Dilution equation
    M1V1 = M2V2
  18. precipitation reaction
    a reaction that occurs between substances in solution in which one of the products is insoluble
  19. net ionic equation
    a chemical equation for a solution reaction in which soluble strong electrolytes are written as ions and spectator ions are omitted