Biology Final

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Biology Final
2011-12-09 02:08:50

Ch. 10, 13, 15 ,16, 18
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  1. endocrine distruptors
    At low doses it affects animals by mimicking estrogen and feminized males.
  2. enviromental health
    assesses environmental factors that influence human health and quality of life.
  3. infectious disease
    considered environmental health hazards, impossible for us to avoid risk from biological agents completely, we can take steps to reduc the liklihood of infection
  4. toxicology
    science that examines the impacts of poisonous substances on humans and other organisms.
  5. toxicant
    a poison or toxic agent
  6. environmental toxicology
    deals with toxic substances that come from or are discharged into our environment
  7. carcinogens
    chemicals or types of radiation that cause cancer
  8. mutagens
    chemicals that cause mutations in DNA of organisms
  9. teratogens
    chemicals that cause harm to the unborn
  10. neurotoxins
    chemical toxin that assults the nervous system, heavy metals, lead, mercury, cadmium
  11. allergins
    overact the immune system causing an immune response that is not necessary
  12. endocrine disruptors
    toxins that interfere with the endocrine system or hormone system
  13. bioaccumulation
    methyl mercury, may be stored in muscle tissue when these toxins are built up in animals it's bioaccumulation
  14. biomagnification
    when toxins are eatin down the food chain (ex: water has a toxin, zooplantin live on water, fish eat zooplantin, bird eats fish, bird gets low concentration of the toxin
  15. epidemiological studies
    large scale comparisons among groups of people usualy comparing people who are exposed to a toxin and those who are not
  16. dose-responce curve
    data on a graph with dose on the x-axis and response on the y-axis the it's the resulting curve
  17. acute exposure
    high exposure for short periods of time
  18. chronic exposure
    low amounts over a long amount of time
  19. synergistic effects
    interactive impacts that are more than or different from the simple sum of their constituent effects
  20. risk assessment
    the quantitative measurement of risk and the comparison of risks involved in different activities or substances
  21. weather
    atmospheric conditions over short periods of time typically days or hours
  22. Climate
    pattern of atmospheric conditions found across large geographic regions over long periods of time
  23. temerature inversion/thermal inversion
    departure from the north temperature profile
  24. Hurricanes
    form when wnds rush into areas of low pressure where warm moisture-laiden air over tropical oceans
  25. air pollutants
    people have done a significant amount of air pollutants, from wood fires, power plants
  26. primary pollutant
    soot, carbon monoxide, are pollutants emitted into the troposhphere in a form that is directly harmful
  27. Secondary pollutant
    harmful substances produced when primary pollutants interact or react with constitents of the atmosphere
  28. clean air act
    1963 emended in 1970 and 1990 legislations funds research into pollution controll, sets standards for air quality, imposes limits, enables people to sue those who violate conditions
  29. carbon monoxide
    colorless, odorless, vehicles are main contributers
  30. sulfur dioxide
    colorless but has a strong odor, mainly from combustion of coal for electricity
  31. Nitrogen Dioxide
    reddish foul smelling gas that contributes to smog and acidic decomposition, when atmospheric nitrogen reacts with high temperatures
  32. Trophopheric ozone
    colorless gas is secondary pollutant caused by sunlight, heat, nitrogen oxides, and volatile carbon containing chemicals
  33. particulate matter
    composed of solid or liquid particles small enough to be suspended in the atmosphere and able to damage respiratory tissues when enhaled
  34. scrubbers
    chemically or physically remove airborn pollutants before they are emitted
  35. toxic air pollutants
    chemicals known to cause serious health or envoronmental problems
  36. industrial smog/ grey air smog
    when coal or oil is burned
  37. photochemical smog/brown air smog
    light-driven chemical reactions of primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds that produce a mix of over 100 chemicals
  38. choloroflurocarbons
    human made compounds
  39. acidic deposition
    deposition of acidic or acid-forming pollutant from the atmosphere onto Earth's surface
  40. atmospheric deposition
    more broadly to wet or dry depostion on land of wide variety of pollutants including mercury nitrates organchlorines and others
  41. fossil fuels
    highly combustable substances formed from the remains of organisms from past peological ages
  42. aerobic
    a tree that falls and decays as a roting log undergos
  43. anerobic
    decomposed with little or no oxygen scuh as lakes swamps and oceans
  44. EROI
    energy returned on investment =energy returned+energy invested
  45. natural gas
    consists mainly of methane and typically includes varying amounts of other volatille hydrocarbons
  46. crude oil/ pertroleum
    sludge like material, tends to form under pressure conditions
  47. reserves to production ratio R/P
    by dividing the amount remaining by the annual rate of producion
  48. Hubbert's peak
    peak of production of oil in 1974
  49. peak oil
    predicting the actual day of peak in oil production is difficult we will not know for certain we will not know if we have reached it until a few years after it has passed
  50. cogneration
    improves efficiency of power plants in which excess heat produced during electricity generation is captured and used to heat workplaces and homes and to produce other kinds of power
  51. nuclear energy
    energy that holds together protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom
  52. nuclear fission
    the release of nuclear energy in power plants
  53. biomass
    organic material that makes up living organisms
  54. biomass energy
    energy from tres, charcoal from burned wood, cattle manure
  55. biopower
    biomass energy materials are burned to create biopower
  56. biofuels
    biomass energy sources are converted into biofuels
  57. hydroelectric power
    kinetic energy of moving water to generate electricity
  58. passive solar
    building are built in materials meant to maximize absorbtion of sunlight
  59. active solar
    energy collection makes use of technology to focus or store solar energy
  60. photoviltaic cells (PV)
    convert sunlight into electrical energy
  61. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)
    is a way to use the absorbed solar radiation from the oceans