ISDS Final : databases and info systems

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ndumas2
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122112
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ISDS Final : databases and info systems
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2011-12-09 00:54:38
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ISDS LSU
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ISDS Final exam cards Databases and information systems
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  1. Database
    • Collection of related data organized so it is easy to:
    • Access
    • Manage
    • Update
    • Group
    • Summarize
  2. Bit
    • Smallest unit of data stored by a computer
    • Contains either a 1 or a 0
  3. Character
    • A letter, number, or symbol
    • Made of bytes—groups of 8 bits
  4. Field
    • Single unit of relative information
    • Has a field name—identifies content
    • Content is data type—includes items as Text, Number, Currency, Date/Time
  5. Record
    • Includes a group of related fields
    • Contained in tables or data files
    • Has a primary key—unique identifier for each record
  6. Data file (table)
    Collection of records
  7. Database
    One or more data files
  8. Data independence
    • Separate from applications
    • Changes do not require changes in structure of forms, reports, or programs accessing databases
  9. Data security
    • Prevents contents from being accessed by unauthorized users (e.g., medical records, financial data)
    • Audit trail—report of who accesses which data
  10. Data maintenance
    • Required for proper care and protection
    • Add records
    • Modify records
    • Delete records
  11. Software used to create databases
    • File management program: Generates a flat file, meaning that there is no relationship with fields in other files
    • Database management systems (DBMSs): Manage multiple tables or files
  12. File management systems
    • Useful for personal and small business needs
    • Used to develop a simple computerized system for information storage and retrieval
    • Inexpensive and easy to use
    • Unable to link to data stored in other files
  13. DBMS (Database management systems)
    • Connects several files or tables
    • Manages, accesses, stores, and edits data
    • Available in a variety of forms
    • Not usually tied to one particular platform
    • Able to present information in reports and other formats
  14. DBMS classifications
    • Flat
    • Relational
    • Object oriented
    • Multidimensional
  15. RDBMS (Relational database management systems)
    • Most widely used class of DBMS
    • Primary key field used as index to locate records
    • Queries can be done through SQL
    • Data dictionary lists all tables in database
    • Compared to file management program
  16. ODBMS (Object-oriented database management
    systems)
    • Suits media applications
    • Data represented as objects
    • Incorporate sound, video, text, and graphics
    • Well suited for applications
  17. Multidimensional databases
    • Depicted as a data cube
    • Dimensions typically categories (i.e., time, products, sales, customers, budget, and markets)
    • Choice for online analytical processing (OLAP)
    • MDX query language can access multiple dimensions
  18. Data warehouses
    • Central location capable of storing all corporate information
    • Data available for analysis
    • Helps executives make decisions
    • Use drill-down method (start with summary level and move down) to focus on specific data
    • Data marts similar but support a department or division
  19. Data mining
    • Explores and analyzes data
    • Determines data patterns helpful for making decisions
    • Managers better understand customers and market
    • Can help predict future trends
    • Variation is Web mining
  20. Client/server database systems
    • Use database server software—responds to remote users’ requests for information
    • Use database client software—provides an interface with the user
    • Use queries to request information from the database server
    • Examples: ATMs and online banking
  21. Web–database integration
    • Taking database information and making it accessible via the Internet
    • Google, Yahoo!, Wikipedia
  22. Cloud computing database
    • Contenders
    • Amazon SimpleDB
    • Google AppEngine Datastore
    • Microsoft SQL Data Services
  23. Information systems
    • Integrate:
    • People
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Data
    • Procedures
  24. Functional divisions
    Manage core functions of an organization
  25. Typical functional divisions
    • Accounting
    • Finance
    • Marketing and sales
    • Human Resources
    • Production/operation
    • Information Systems
  26. Transaction processing systems
    • Handle day-to-day accounting needs
    • Keeps record of every transaction involving money
    • Save money by automating routine recordkeeping
    • Batch online processing
  27. Management information systems
    • Provide information needed to make decisions
    • Generate predefined reports
  28. Decision support systems
    • Produce reports more specific than management information system reports
    • Enable managers to create simulations
    • OLAP (online analytical processing)
  29. Executive information systems
    • Help top-level managers make strategic decisions
    • Filter critical information to show trends
  30. Knowledge management systems
    Use information from books and experienced individuals to assist decision making
  31. Expert systems
    • Rely on detailed and in-depth knowledge of experts in a specific field
    • Use knowledge base to generate answers
  32. Retail sector
    Computers and databases not only used for traditional applications
  33. Point-of-sale (POS)
    • Credit card authorization
    • Inventory system
    • Check-screening system
    • Signature capture system
    • Photo checkout system
    • Marketing devices

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