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2011-12-11 14:04:45
Tawni class

Fundamentals, Tawni's class
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  1. Define massage
    is the manual or mechanial manipulation of the soft tissues of the body for theraputic purpose by movements such as rubbing, kneading, skin rolling, cupping, hacking, etc to relieve muscle tension and stress, relaxation, and maintaing a balance mental and physical health for the body
  2. How long has massage been a major part of medicine
    5000 years
  3. how long has massage been important in Western medicine
    3000 years
  4. Rubbing upward towards the heart
  5. he is known as the father of physical therapy
    Per Henry Link
  6. movement in cooperation with therapist
    duplicated movement
  7. activities legally acceptable according to license
    scope of practice
  8. movement performed by the therapist
    passive movement
  9. broadens fibrous tissue breaking down adhesions
    deep transverse friction
  10. accredited for modern massage terminology
    Dr. Johan Mezger
  11. popularized deep transvered friction massage
    Dr. James Cyriax
  12. which massage system is most widely used in general massage
  13. In America, the use of the word massage was popularized in 1874 by:
    • Douglas Graham
    • Benjamin Lee
    • Charles Mills
  14. who is credited for developing the Swedish movement Cure?
    Per Henrick Ling
  15. The brothers who introduced the Swedish Movement Cure to the U.S. are
    • Charles Taylor
    • George Taylor
  16. The oldest national professional massage association in the the ___________ and was established in Chicago by graduates of the College of Swedish Massage.
    American Massage Therapist Association (AMTA)
  17. In the therapeutic relationship, being sensitive to, respecting and maintaing both personal and professional _______ are critical to avoiding potential ethical; dilemmas.
  18. define active
    active is when the patient does the moving
  19. define passive
    is when the therapist does the moving and the patient is in motion.
  20. define contraindication
    any physical, mental, or emotional condition a client may have that may cause a particular massage or treatment to be detrimental or unsafe.
  21. List 6 conditions generally relieved by massage:
    • stress and tension
    • mental and physical fatigue
    • pain in back, shoulders, neck
    • muscle soreness
    • improves circulation
    • headache and eyestrain
    • relieves insomnia
    • helps muscle spasms
    • faster healing
    • increase metabolism
  22. List 10 endangerment sites:
    • inferior to ear: notch posterior to ramus of the mandible
    • anterior triangle of the neck: mandible, scm and trachea
    • posterior triangle of neck: scm, trapezius, and clavicle
    • axilla: armpit
    • medial brachium: upper inner arm between biceps and triceps
    • cubital area of the elbow: anterior bend of the elbow
    • ulnar notch of the elbow: the funny bone
    • femoral triangle: sartorius, adductor longus, inguinal ligament
    • popliteal fossa: posterior of knee bordered by gastrocnemius (inferior) and the hamstrings (superior)
    • abdomen: upper area of abdomen under the ribs
    • upper lumbar area: inferior to ribs, later to spine
  23. Circular movements, pressing superficial tissue into deeper layers is
  24. Performing effleurage from the foot up to the thigh is an example of
    antraprisis or centripetal movement
  25. Without your help, our client lifts his/her arm off the table. This is
    Active movement
  26. You perform range of motion on client's hip without their assistance. this is
    passive movement
  27. Techniques that broaden fibrous tissue, breaking down adhesions
    deep transverse or cross-fiber friction
  28. Small digital strokes across the fibers of a muscle
  29. The study of vital processes, mechanisms, and functions of an organ or system
  30. Fight or Flight hormones secreted in response to stress are
    cortisol and adrenaline
  31. Kneading movements on the gastrocnemius is
  32. the study of the gross structure of the body and the interrelation of its parts is
  33. the scientific study of muscular activity is
  34. study of structural and functional changes caused by disease
  35. this hormone acts as an anti-inflammatory
  36. compression on an area that reduces blood supply would be called
    ischemic compression
  37. long, deep or superficial gliding strokes along the back
  38. the net effect of deep strokes and kneading techniques is
    increased blood flow or hyperemia
  39. massage techniques that are stimulating to the sensory nerves are
    • rubbing, rolling, wringing movements (friction)
    • strong percussion for a short period of time
    • shaking and trembling movements (vibration)
  40. firm, kneading strokes on the top of the trapezius
  41. cupping movements don on the back for lung congestion
  42. in Swedish massage, strokes should be direrted upward along the limbs, and downward from the head, facilitating the flow of
    venous blood and lymph
  43. actively moving muscles heps prevent loss of
    tone and strength to contractile tissue
  44. light massage can, over time, restore energy to a client suffering from
  45. the brothers who introduced the Swedish Movement Cure to the United States are:
    • George Taylor and
    • Charles Taylor
  46. who is credited for developing the Swedish Movement Cure?
    per Henrik Ling
  47. Arthritis is an
    inflammation of the joint
  48. inflammation of a vein accompanied by pain and swelling is called
  49. in joint movements, a bone against bone feeling is
    hard end feel
  50. an abrupt restriction to a joint movement due to pain
    empty end feel
  51. who popularized the technique of "deep transverse friction" massage?
    James Cyriax
  52. Who established modern massage terminology?
    Johann Mezger
  53. The most immediate therapeutic benefit of friction is
    local hyperemia
  54. the main purpose of deep transverse friction is to
    separate muscle fibers
  55. what is the best massage technique to lift muscles off the bone?
    petrissage (grasping and kneading techniques)
  56. Body areas where caution should be used to avoid damaging underlying anatomical structures are called
    Endangerment sites
  57. stacking joints means
    keeping them aligned
  58. Jin Shin Do, Polarity Thearapy, Reiki, and Touch for Health are all examples of
    Energy Techniques
  59. Alexander Technique, Aston Patterning, and Feldenkrais are all examples of
    Movement Techniques
  60. Cranial-sacral Therapy, Rolfing, Esalen Massage, and Watsu are all examples
    Manipulative Techniques
  61. Applied Kinesiology and Aromatherapy are example of
    Non Classified Techniques
  62. The muscle that is generally more stationary and located proximal is
    the origin
  63. the more mobile attachment and generally more distal is the
    the insertion
  64. when the client lifts their limb off the table and pushes against your hand, the movement is classified as
    active resistive
  65. during some trigger point therapy, you are pushing on the trigger point in cycles of pain intesity peaking at 6 or 7 (on a 10 point scale) and subsiding to 3 or 4. The law and or technique being applies is referred to as
    Ischemic compression and the Arndt-Shultz Law
  66. This technique broadens fibrous tissue, breaking down adhesions
    Deep transverse friction
  67. The idea that stimulation of particular points on the body affects other areas or organs is called
  68. kneading strokes on the top of the trapezius is an example of
  69. cupping done o nthe back for lung congestion is an example of
  70. aligning major body segements through manipulation of connective tissue is
    Rolfing method
  71. the most immediate therapeutic benefit of friction is
    local hyperemia
  72. what is the best massage technique to lift muscles off the bone?
  73. Name and describe the 4 basic steps involved in Therapeutic Procedure
    • Assessment: Assessing the minute they walk in. look at body mechanics, posture. Assessment through visual then by feel. Feel the tissue throughout whole body.
    • Planning: information gained from the assessment is used to set treatment goals and determine strategy
    • Performance: actually applying your technique based on your assessment and planning
    • Evaluation: Examine outcome of your session and this is a continuous process.
  74. What is the difference between subjective and objective findings?
    • Subjective: information perceived by the client
    • Objective: what is observed by the therapist
  75. Define Contractile tissue
    fibrous tissues that have tensions placed on them during muscular contractions
  76. define inert tissue
    passive tissues, tissues that are not contractile such as bone, ligament, or nerves
  77. Define End feel
    the change in the quality of the movement as the end of a movement is achieved
  78. ____ is a skill and an art developed by the therapis that is a primary assessment tool allowing the therapis to listen to the client's body through the therapist's hands.
  79. In regards to the terms used to describe a condition, pain or an illness, what is the difference between chronic and acute?
    • chronic: lingering or ongoing condition
    • acute: sudden onset usually short duration
  80. Chair massage was formulated and popularized by
    David Palmer
  81. in seated massage, which areas are most readily accessible?
    head, neck, shoulders, back, hips, arms, hands
  82. the most common reasons seated clients might faint or experiene symptoms of fainting are:
    drop in blood pressure or blood sugar
  83. What does the acronym P.R.I.C.E. stand for and how is it used
    • its for first aid response
    • P: Protect the area or tissue
    • R: Rest the area
    • I: Ice the area to reduce swelling and pain
    • C:Compression the area
    • E: Elevation to the area to reduce swelling and pain
  84. Define Cryotherapy
    is the application of cold agents for therapeutic purposes
  85. Define hydrotherapy
    is the application of water in any of its 3 forms (solid, liquid, vapor) to the body for therapeutic purposes
  86. define Contrast Therapy
    is the application of alternating heat and cold for therapeutic purposes
  87. Define Thermotherapy
    is the external application of heat to the body for therapeutic purposes
  88. Describe the three classifications of the effects and changes hydrotherapy has on the body
    • Thermal: application of water at temps above or below of the body (baths, wraps, and packs)
    • Mechanical: application of pressure exerted on the body by sprays, whirlpool baths, and friction
    • Chemical: application of products to bath water or steam like oils, salts, herbal peparations.
  89. Name 5 contraindications for performing hydrotherapy
    • diabetes
    • lung disease
    • kidney infection
    • extremely high or low blood pressure
    • multiple sclerosis
    • during pregnancy
  90. causes vasodialtion and an increase of circulation
  91. a whole-body application of ___ raises the core body temp
  92. a short application of ___ has a stimulating effect where as an extended application of ___ will depress metabolic activity.
  93. thermal treatments above ___ or below freeazing may cause tissue damage.
    115 degrees F
  94. prolonged general treatments below 70 degrees F may cause___
  95. prolonged general treatment above 104 degrees F may cause
  96. ___ can cause perspiration, increase pulse rate, and white cell counts
  97. ____ may have a numbing, anesthic, analgestic effect.
  98. local applications of ___ cause a reduction of nerve sensitivity, circulation, and muscle spasms
  99. local applications of ___ cause reddening (due to vasodialtion), increased metabolism and leukocyte migration to the area
  100. the application of water in any of its 3 forms (solid, liquid, or vapor) to the body for therapeutic purposes
  101. the alternating application of heat and cold for therapeutic purposes
    contrast therapy
  102. farthest point from the origin of a structure
  103. pertaining to the middle, near midline
  104. dividing into front and back halves
    coronal plane
  105. on the side; further from the center
  106. dividing left and right, vertically
    sagittal plane
  107. nearest to the origin of a structure
  108. toward the crown of the head or the top
    superior (cranial)
  109. dividing upper and lower, horizontally
    transverse plane
  110. before or in front of
    anterior (ventral)
  111. toward the feet
    inferior (caudal)
  112. behind or back of
    posterior (dorsal)
  113. region of groin
  114. side of the cranium or head
  115. region of armpit
  116. diamond shaped area behind the knee
  117. inferior to the umbilical region
  118. region of the neck
  119. region of the lower back
  120. between the shoulder and the elbow
  121. region of the thigh
  122. region of the buttocks
  123. Dorsal
    • cranial cavity
    • spinal cavity
  124. Ventral
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Abdominal cavity
    • Pelvic cavity
  125. Name the 10 important systems of the human body
    • I: Integumentary
    • S: Skeletal
    • M: Muscular
    • C: Circulatory
    • N: Nervous
    • E: Endocrine
    • D: Digestive
    • R: Respiratory
    • E: Excretory
    • R: Reproduction
  126. Name the 6 principle functions of the skin
    • P: Protection: Protects the body from injury and bacterial invasion.
    • H: Heat regulation: maintains homeostasis
    • A: Absorption: its water proof, protects us from chemicals by limiting the amounts absorbed
    • R: Respiration: it breathes through the pores takine in O2 and releases CO2
    • S: Secretion and excretion: sudoriferous glands excrete sweat which waste and maintiain homeostasis and sebaceous gland secrete oil or sebum to lubricate skin
    • S: Sensation: have many nerves to provide sensation of touch
  127. Name and define the two clear divisions or layers of the skin's structure:
    • Epidermis: outer most layer ofthe skin
    • Dermis: inner layer below the Epidermis
  128. _____ and _____ supply nutrients to the skin
    Blood and Lymph
  129. As much as ____ % of the total blood suply to the body is distributed to the skin
  130. Massage ___ ___ which benefits the skin by carrying nutrients to the cells.
    increases or improves circulation and blood flow
  131. Name the two types of duct or exocrine glands found in the skin and the function of each one.
    • sudoriferous glands: excrete sweat to get rid of waste and maintain homeostasis
    • sebaceous glands: secrete oil to lubricate skin
  132. Define a lesion
    a structural change to the tissue caused by disease or an injury.
  133. Name and describe the 5 main functions of the skeletal system
    • Framework: supports body structures and gives shape to body
    • Protects delicate internal organs and tissues
    • Provide attachement for our muscles and work with them to produce movement
    • Manufacture blood cell in the red bone marrow
    • Storage for minerals, salts, calcium
  134. Name the 2 main parts or division of the skeleton and name the basic parts that make up each division
    • axial: cranium, face, ear, hyoid bone, vertebral column, thoracic cage
    • appendicular skeleton:
    • Upper extremeties: clavicla, scapula, humerous, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals
    • Lower extremeties: pelvis, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
  135. In the human adult, the skeleton consists of ____ bones
  136. Define a sprain then classify sprains according to their severity:
    • sprain is an injury to a joint that results in stretching or tearing of the ligament.
    • sprain I: stretch in ligament, minimal loss of function
    • sprain II: ligament is torn, some loss of function. discoloration of skin from tissue damage
    • sprain III: torn ligament, most severe, severe loss of function, internal bleeding
  137. define bursae and define bursitis
    • bursae: fibrous sacks lined with synovial membrane and lubricated with synovial fluid, functioning as a cushion in areas of pressure
    • bursitis: is an inflammation of the bursae
  138. The musular systems shapes and supports the skeleton. Depending on a person's physical development, muscles comprise approximately ___ % to ___ % of the total body weight.
    40% to 60%
  139. The skeletal muscular system consists of over ___ muscles, large and small.
  140. Name and describe the 3 types of musclar tissue:
    • Voluntary: straited
    • Involuntary: nonstraited, smooth
    • Cardiac or Heart: striated, found only in the heart
  141. Define Origin
    the end of a muscle attachment to an immovable section of the skeleton
  142. Define insertion:
    more mobile attachment of a muscle to bone
  143. define isometric contraction
    occurs when a muscle contracts and the ends of the muscle do not move
  144. define isotonic contraction
    when a muscle contracts and the distance between the ends of the muscle changes
  145. define eccentric contraction
    when a muscle contracts while the ends of the muscle move farther apart.
  146. define prime mover
    primary muscle responsible for a specific movement
  147. define agonist
    a prime mover
  148. define antagonist
    the muscle that performs the opposite movement of the agonist
  149. define synergists
    muscles that assist the agonist
  150. define fixator
    muscles that act to stabilize a body part so that another muscle can act on an adjacent limb or body part
  151. define muscle spasm
    involuntary contraction of muscles
  152. muslce tissue and fascia are structurally and functionally inseparable. The term ___ has been coined to describe the combined muscle and fascial tissue.
  153. Name and describe the 3 degrees of muscle strain
    • Grade I: overstretching a few muscle fibers with minimal tearing of fibers. no loss of function.
    • Grade II: a partial tear of 10% to 50% of the muscle fibers. some loss of function
    • Grade III: most severe with 50% to 100% of muscle tearing. theres a papaple depression of muscle. severe pain. total to near total loss of muscle function
  154. The preferred intervention during the acute stage of a muscle strain, which can last from ___ to ___ hours, depending on the severity, is described by the acronym P.R.I.C.E.
    • 24 to 72 hours. used for 1st aid response
    • Protection
    • Rest
    • Ice
    • Compression
    • Elevation
  155. Type ___, ( ___ twitch) ____ muscles respond to stress/disuse by shortening & becoming hypertonic, while type ___, ( ____ twitch) _____ muscles respond to stress/disuse by weakening.
    Type I, slow twitch postural muscles

    Type II, fast twitch phasic muscles
  156. Postural Muscles
    Type I, become hypertonic
  157. phasic muscles
    Type II, inhibited and weaken, become hypotonic