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the branch of philosophy dealing, with study of values
the political belief that power to rule must be given exclusively to the state
the political belief that all forms of government should be abolished because they interfere with the rights of individuals
social contract theory
(an agreement among citizens or between the ruler and the ruled that defines the rights and duties of each party.)
one who believes that blending as much as possible with the dominant culture will separatist � one who believes that blending with the dominant culture is not possible, desirable, or both
one who believes in the primary importance of individual freedoms
one who values the preservation of established traditions
that portion of eternal law applicable to human beings, according to Aquinas
a rational principle of order, often the logos, by which the universe was created or is organized
law that are created by government
breaking of a civil law in protest by citing obedience to a higher law
a term used to describe where political authority does or should reside
checks and balances
system by which each of the three branches of the U.S. government restrains the power of the other two, keeping any one from becoming too powerful
in Marxist thought, the estrangement of workers from their work, their fellow citizens, and ultimately themselves as the direct result of capitalism�s exploitative nature
Rawls�s hypothetical position from which a general social contract may be constructed; because the parties do not know which position they will occupy in society, they are likely to create a truly just society.
equal liberty principle
Rawls�s primary condition of justice that insists people must be treated equally and be guaranteed minimum natural rights
in Rawls�s system of justice permission to treat people differently as long as the least well-off benefit from the different treatment
the theory that women should have political, legal, economic, and social rights equal to those of men and should define their own roles
Declaration of Sentiments
written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1848. She based arguments off of rationality and equality, she lived in Johnstown, New York. This was written for the Seneca Falls convention, The first women's rights convention ever held in America
de Beauvoir�s term for the �otherness� experienced by women and nonwhite men in relation to the power positions staked out by white men in Western society.
an ethical theory that evaluates behavior in terms of adherence to duty or obligation, regardless of consequences
Immanuel Kant; a deontological ethical principle, developed by Kant, that states unconditionally that one must act in such a way as to desire his or her actions to become universal laws binding on everyone.
he theory that an action is right if it seeks to promote the greatest amount of happiness in the world at large
an ethical theory that uses as a moral standard what a virtuous person would do, rather than consequences or obligations; the primary question is, What kind of person should I be?
ethic of care
an ethical theory, which is a variation on virtue ethics, that holds an ideal the caring self
the view that the will of an individual is not free and is instead determined by factors beyond his or her control and/or responsibility
the view that the will of an individual remains free even if some of that individual�s choices are determined by previous experiences
emphasizes the uniqueness and freedom of the human person as an individual (what makes each life a unique, personal experience) as opposed to the essence of a human being (what makes all of us alike)
the state of being excused from moral responsibility for an act that is objectively immoral
a system of justice that seeks healing rather than punishment and requires the perpetrator to restore to the victim some of what the victim has lost � both materially and emotionally.
representing something non-human (such as animals or God) in human likeness
puts the ecosystem first and assumes, as a philosophical position, that the natural world has intrinsic value
The first women's rights convention ever held in America
hierarchy of laws
humans are bad
that states unconditionally that one must act in such a way as to desire his or her actions to become universal laws binding on everyone.
When we speak of a community we speak of a fictitious concept, for a community is nothing more than the individuals of which it is made; make them happy as individuals and you make a happy community.
Harriet Taylor Mill
Essay �Enfranchisement of Women� on utilitarian principles, asking whether the condition of women in her day really furthered society�s overall good.
John Stuart Mill
confounded that the quality of pleasure was more important than the mere quantity of pleasure
Jean Jacques Rousseau � put forth the idea that perfect freedom exists only in the state of nature; Before civilization, before the advent of the state, before the creation of private property, individuals enjoyed a kind of pure liberty.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Declaration of Sentiments in 1848 demanding the right to vote
Susan B. Anthony
1872 co-leader of the women�s movement attempted to vote and was arrested for doing so.
He was one of the first three blacks admitted to Harvard Medical
extremist that wanted violence in order to free African Americans from oppression
Abolitionist escaped from slavery and fought for equality of ALL people; especially African Americans and Women.
Went to Harvard, grew up in an accepting community and experienced little racism
Know the ethical theories of deontology, utilitarianism, and ethic of care. Be able to apply these theories to the case of Baby Theresa.
- Baby Theresa was a baby that was born without certain brain function that would allow her to do anything on her own. The parents decided to donate the organs to help someone else.
- � Deontology - an ethical theory that evaluates behavior in terms of adherence to duty or obligation, regardless of consequences (IE: end my child�s almost nonexistent life and save others because it is my duty as a person to help other people regardless of losing my child.)
- � Utilitarianism- the theory that an action is right if it seeks to promote the greatest amount of happiness in the world at large. (IE: Keeping my baby alive would benefit me but as for the greatest good, my child wouldn�t have much of a life being brain dead, so saving multiple other people would be the greatest good for the greatest number of people.)
- � Ethic of care - an ethical theory, which is a variation on virtue ethics, that holds an ideal the caring self (IE: Caring for my young and myself would be the only option in the ethic of care because I would be holding what is ideal for my self.)
Explain Thomas Aquinas� Hierarchy of Laws. What did he say about unjust laws? What is civil disobedience? According to this schema, when and why could civil disobedience be justified?
- Hierarchy of Laws � Divine Law � god given law
- Natural Law �based of reason
- Human Law � government created
- � Civil disobedience - breaking of a civil law in protest by citing obedience to a higher law (Harriet Tubman sitting in a bus seat not designated for her �color�)
Explain the similarities and differences between W.E.B. DuBois, Martin Delany, Malcolm X, Frederick Douglass and Martin Luther King, Jr.
- � Delany - He was one of the first three blacks admitted to Harvard Medical
- � Malcolm X � extremist that wanted violence in order to free African Americans from oppression
- � Frederick Douglass � Abolitionist escaped from slavery and fought for equality of ALL people; especially African Americans and Women.
- � W.E.B. DuBois � Went to Harvard, grew up in an accepting community and experienced little racism
Explain John Rawls� equal liberty and difference principles. What did he mean by �original position� and �veil of ignorance?� Compare Rawls� ideas to those of Robert Nozick, and Karl Marx.
- (Veil ) �no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status; nor does he know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence and strength, and the like."
- (Original Position) This choice is made from behind a veil of ignorance, which would deprive participants of information about their particular characteristics: his or her ethnicity, social status, gender and, crucially, Conception of the Good (an individual's idea of how to lead a good life).
- This forces participants to select principles impartially and rationally.
- Nozick -while the original position may be the just starting point, any inequalities derived from that distribution by means of free exchange are equally just, and that any re-distributive tax is an infringement on people's liberty. He also argues that Rawls's application of the maximum rule to the original position is risk aversion taken to its extreme, and is therefore unsuitable even to those behind the veil of ignorance.
Explain the three perspectives on war and the principles of just war theory.
- Christian Just War Theory � when it is morally right to use armed force and what was permissible during the prosecution of war. [A just war is fought to secure peace, punish those who have done great harm, and uplift all that is good.]
- Islamic Jihad � Fight in the way of God against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Verily God loveth not aggressors; focuses on a defensive basis.
- Asian Approaches to War � pacifism; Jainism.
Compare the positions of Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King on non-violence and civil disobedience.
Both decided to take actions of civil disobedience, Gandhi used this practice very effectively in India when he led thousands to nonviolently oppose the laws of British colonial rule, which he believed to be unjust. MLKJ found himself in a Birmingham jail for various marches, and non violent protests.
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