Ch 1, 2, 3 vocab

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Ch 1, 2, 3 vocab
2011-12-10 13:47:00
AP government

government vocab
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  1. democracy
    government by the people
  2. direct democracy
    citizens assemble to discuss and pass laws and select officials
  3. representative democracy
    • aka republic
    • gov't authorities get and retain power by winning free elections in which all adult citizens are allowed to participate
  4. constutional democracy
    • gov't by representative politicians; there are recognized, enforced limits on the powers of all gov't officials
    • emphasizes individual
  5. constutionalism
    adhere to guidelines of Constitution
  6. statism
    • form of gov't based on centralized authority and control; especially over economy
    • emphasizes rights of nation over individual
  7. popular consent
    gov derives power from the ppl it governs
  8. majority rule
    more than half wins
  9. plurality
    most votes wins
  10. theocracy
    religious leaders claim divine guidance (other sects usually denied religous liberty)
  11. Articles of Confederation
    • no executive, judiciary, or coinage
    • states power
    • could not enforce tax of army
    • could not be amended effectively --> Constitution
  12. Annapolis Convention
    address problems of the AoC
  13. Shay's Rebellion
    rebellion of farmers b/c debts and foreclosures 1786
  14. constitutional convention
    annapolis decides new doc is needed 1787
  15. bicameralism
    two house legislature (connecticut compromise)
  16. VA plan
    large states, strong cental gov, legislation based on population
  17. NJ Plan
    small states, equal rep in legislative
  18. Connecticut compromise
    • small & large states: bicameral legislature, one house equal rep, one on population
    • N&S states: slave = 3/5 of person
  19. federalist v. antifederalist debate
    strong central gov w/ constitution v. states' rights w/ AoC
  20. natural law
    law that defines right from wrong; higher than human law
  21. separation of powers
    distribution of constitutional authority among the three branches
  22. checks and balances
    • constitutional grant of powers that enables each of the 3 branches to check some acts of the others so that no branch an dominate
    • see page 33 in textbook
  23. divided government
    • goverance divided between parties; especially when one holds presidency and the other controls one or both houses of congress
    • creates need for compromise
  24. partisanship
    strong allegiance to a political party; often leading to unwillingness to compromise with opposing party
  25. direct primary
    an election in which voters choose party nominees
  26. initiative
    a certain number of voters, may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
  27. referendum
    submitting measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution to popular vote
  28. recall
    submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from offic before the end of their term
  29. judicial review
    power of court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation or action that conflicts w/ constitution
  30. writ of mandamus
    court order directing an official to perform an official duty
  31. congressional elaboration
    congressional legislation that gives further meaning to constitution based on sometimes vague constitutional authority (ex. elastic clause)
  32. impeachment
    formal accusation by HoR against a public official (1st step of removal from office) --tried by senate
  33. executive order
    a directive issued by a prez or governor that has the force of law
  34. executive privilege
    power to keep executive communications confidential (esp b/c of national security)
  35. impoundment
    prez refusal to allow agency to spend funds appropriated by Congress
  36. federalism
    powers distributed btwn central and state/local gov (both exercise authority over indiv)
  37. unitary system
    constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central governement (opposite of confederation)
  38. confederation
    constitutional arrangement in which states, by compact, create a central gov but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority
  39. delegated powers
    explicit in constitution
  40. implied powers
    • inferred that allow government to carry out its functions
    • necessary and proper clause
  41. expressed powers
    constitution explicitly grants to one of the branches
  42. inherent powers
    come from the very existence of national government (natural powers)
  43. commerce clause
    gives congress the power to regulate all business activites that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations
  44. federal mandate
    requirement that the federal gov imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds
  45. reserved powers
    • amendment 10
    • all powers not given to national government (reserved for states)
  46. concurrent powers
    • powers that the constitution gives to both the national and state government
    • ex. taxes
  47. full faith and credit clause
    • requires each state to recognize the civil judgements rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
    • ex. drivers license valid in all states
  48. extradition
    legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which crime was allegedly committed
  49. interstate compact
    • agreement among 2 or more states
    • must be approved by congress
  50. national supremacy
    if conflict arises btwn the constitutionally authorized actions of the national gov and the state gov --> national always wins
  51. preemption
    right of federal law or regulation to prohibit enforcement of a state/local law or regulation
  52. centralists
    favor national action
  53. decentralists
    favor state/local action
  54. state's rights
    powers expressed or implied to be reserved to the states
  55. devolution revolution
    • effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states
    • Reagan
  56. categorical grants
    • more detailed
    • federal money dedicated to a category and divided btwn states
    • 2 types: formula based and project
  57. block grant
    • federal funds go towards a general goal
    • less detailed/strict
    • state/organization can decide how to divide money
  58. federalist paper no. 10
  59. federalist paper no. 51
    • checks and balances
    • "auxillary precautions"