physio psych final 2

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elk5057
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122181
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physio psych final 2
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2011-12-09 12:14:10
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physiological psychology psu psych physio
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physio psych final review
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  1. The ________ hypothesis of depression suggests that it is caused by decreased activity of serotonin and norepinephrine
    monoamine
  2. No emotional response...
    flat affect
  3. Repeated depressive and manic episodes are related to increased siz of the lateral ___________, this implies a loss of brain tissue.
    ventricles
  4. There is a 60% ______ rate for MZ tiwns for major depressive disorder.
    concordance
  5. Schizophrenics may have deficits in the __________ __________, which is important for cognitive control and emotions
    cingulate cortex
  6. _________________ ususally help the positive syptoms of schizophrenia but not the negative symptoms
    antipsychotics
  7. __________ individuals have abnormalities in the PFC, basal ganglia, hippocmapus, thalamus, cerebellum, temporal lobes, and amygdala.
    depressed
  8. __________ and psychotherapy us more effective at treating depression than either one of these appraoches are alone.
    SSRI's
  9. Rapidly alleviates depression because it it induces the release of monoamines- however it is used when pharmacological treatments do not work
    ECT
  10. He was one of the first to attribute mental disorders to underlying biology; he described schizophrenia in modern terms (i.e., paranoia, delusions, inappropriate affect).
    Kraepelin
  11. Children of older fathers have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia- one theory attributes this to mutations of ________ that have resulted from DNA copying errors taking place during cell division.
    spermocytes
  12. _________ ___________ __________ appear to be a major cause in depression that first occurs later in life...these cerebral events could go unnoticed
    silent cerebral infarctions
  13. In this condition, people who have high levels of glucocorticoids-like cortisol- are prone to depression.
    Cushing's syndrome
  14. The _______ symptoms of schizophrenia involve the presence of maladaptive thoughts or behaviors.
    positive
  15. Zeitgebers might play a role in this condition where one would sleep more, crave carbohydrates, gain weight, and feel depressed.
    seasonal affective disorder
  16. In schizophrenia the most common halluncinations are....
    ...auditory
  17. Indicators of bioth genetic issues and psychopathological symptoms...
    ...neurological soft signs
  18. Concordance of schizophrenia in _____ twins is higher than the concrodance rate in dichorionic twins.
    monochorionic
  19. Excessive elation or agitation...
    ...mania
  20. ___________ for several hours per day has been shown to work as a treatment for seasonal affective disorder.
    phototherapy
  21. About 16.2 Americans had _________ at some time in their lives
    MDD (major depressive disorder)
  22. Terrible side effects of antipsychotics...
    ....tardive dyskinesia
  23. A seasonality effect of schizophrenic births lead to the theory that mothers of schizophrenics, when pregnant had a slow _______
    virus
  24. A common treatment for bipolar disorder, but its effective dosage is near toxic
    lithium
  25. One thoery of schizophrenia is that too much ________ _________ occurs resulting in too few neurons and brain matter
    synaptic pruning
  26. Created the term schizophrenia...
    ...Bleuler
  27. _______ are found in 50% of schizophrenic patients
    delusions
  28. Major depressive disorder has a strong link to _______
    suicide
  29. The ______ symptoms of schizophrenia involve the diminution of absence of normal beahvior
    negative
  30. String lcoalized magnetic field induces current in the PFC; this can decrease depressive symptoms--still in its early stages
    TMS
  31. When people with social phobia view neutral emotionla faces, they exhibit amygdala activation. Thus, the are detecting a ______ where there is none.
    threat
  32. Surprisingly, PTSD victims experience a _______ in cortisol.
    reduction
  33. Very high levels of _________ are released in the brain during stress, and patients with PTSD have heightened levels of this neurotransmitter long after the traumatic event has passed.
    norepinephrine
  34. Some studies suggest that ____ may result from a smaller hippocampus.
    PTSD
  35. Dopamine antagonists can reduce _____ frequency in patients with Tourette syndrome.
    tics
  36. The concordance rate for autism is extremely high in ______ twins.
    MZ
  37. Drilling a hole in your head to release demons or recapture child-like awareness....
    ...trepanning
  38. PET scans of those with ______ show increased activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate and basal ganglia.
    OCD
  39. Since panic disorder is associated with fear, patients likley have _________ dysfunction
    amygdala
  40. The physical symptoms of ______ disorder are shortness of breath, clammy sweat, heartbeat irregularities, faitness, dizziness, and feeling of unreality
    panic
  41. The brain stem, cerebellum and corpus callosum are among the brain regions implicated in _________
    autism
  42. ______ ________ syndrome may be evidence of OCD in dogs
    acral lick
  43. Most anxiolytic medication work by increasing the availabilti of ______ in the brain
    GABA
  44. There is evidence that OCD can be triggered by ________
    infections
  45. Compulsive hair pulling....
    ...trichtotillomania
  46. _______ syndrome may be related to damage tothe basal ganglia, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex due to birth trauma, encephalitis, or other head trauma.
    Tourette
  47. Imaging studies show that patients with PTSD have weaker ________ function and stronger amygdala activation, consistant with their symptoms.
    prefrontal
  48. It is unclear what neural mechanism underly ______ ________ ________, but the occipital cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system are thought to be involved
    generalized anxiety disorder
  49. The striatum, part of the _______ _____, is involved in the stereotyped cognitions associated with OCD
    basal ganglia
  50. Autistic patients show reduction in the ________ ______ _______; this must be related to the social dysfunction
    fusiform face area
  51. Xanax, Valium, Atlivan, Klonopin, and Librium are all _____________, used to treat anxiety disorder
    benzodiazapines
  52. Used to attempt to "treat" mental disorder in the past,; it involves disconnecting parts of the frontal lobe from the rest of the brain.
    lobotomy
  53. Panic disorder is associated with structural and functional changes in the ______ lobes
    temporal
  54. The _______ of autistic patients are 10% larger than controls by ages 2-3
    brains
  55. Those with ________ experience underactivity of the prefrontal cortex
    ADHD
  56. The fear of having another panic attack can lead to...
    ...agoraphobia
  57. Those who have a specific phobia tend to have abnormalities of the _______, which plays a role in emotions, motor functions, language, and addiction
    insula
  58. The _______ ________ _______ vaccine does NOT cause autism; a researcher fabricated the connection
    measles-mumps-rubella
  59. One study suggested that ______ is present in 27% of psychiatric patients
    anxiety

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