The ________ hypothesis of depression suggests that it is caused by decreased activity of serotonin and norepinephrine
No emotional response...
Repeated depressive and manic episodes are related to increased siz of the lateral ___________, this implies a loss of brain tissue.
There is a 60% ______ rate for MZ tiwns for major depressive disorder.
Schizophrenics may have deficits in the __________ __________, which is important for cognitive control and emotions
_________________ ususally help the positive syptoms of schizophrenia but not the negative symptoms
__________ individuals have abnormalities in the PFC, basal ganglia, hippocmapus, thalamus, cerebellum, temporal lobes, and amygdala.
__________ and psychotherapy us more effective at treating depression than either one of these appraoches are alone.
Rapidly alleviates depression because it it induces the release of monoamines- however it is used when pharmacological treatments do not work
He was one of the first to attribute mental disorders to underlying biology; he described schizophrenia in modern terms (i.e., paranoia, delusions, inappropriate affect).
Children of older fathers have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia- one theory attributes this to mutations of ________ that have resulted from DNA copying errors taking place during cell division.
_________ ___________ __________ appear to be a major cause in depression that first occurs later in life...these cerebral events could go unnoticed
silent cerebral infarctions
In this condition, people who have high levels of glucocorticoids-like cortisol- are prone to depression.
The _______ symptoms of schizophrenia involve the presence of maladaptive thoughts or behaviors.
Zeitgebers might play a role in this condition where one would sleep more, crave carbohydrates, gain weight, and feel depressed.
seasonal affective disorder
In schizophrenia the most common halluncinations are....
Indicators of bioth genetic issues and psychopathological symptoms...
...neurological soft signs
Concordance of schizophrenia in _____ twins is higher than the concrodance rate in dichorionic twins.
Excessive elation or agitation...
___________ for several hours per day has been shown to work as a treatment for seasonal affective disorder.
About 16.2 Americans had _________ at some time in their lives
MDD (major depressive disorder)
Terrible side effects of antipsychotics...
A seasonality effect of schizophrenic births lead to the theory that mothers of schizophrenics, when pregnant had a slow _______
A common treatment for bipolar disorder, but its effective dosage is near toxic
One thoery of schizophrenia is that too much ________ _________ occurs resulting in too few neurons and brain matter
Created the term schizophrenia...
_______ are found in 50% of schizophrenic patients
Major depressive disorder has a strong link to _______
The ______ symptoms of schizophrenia involve the diminution of absence of normal beahvior
String lcoalized magnetic field induces current in the PFC; this can decrease depressive symptoms--still in its early stages
When people with social phobia view neutral emotionla faces, they exhibit amygdala activation. Thus, the are detecting a ______ where there is none.
Surprisingly, PTSD victims experience a _______ in cortisol.
Very high levels of _________ are released in the brain during stress, and patients with PTSD have heightened levels of this neurotransmitter long after the traumatic event has passed.
Some studies suggest that ____ may result from a smaller hippocampus.
Dopamine antagonists can reduce _____ frequency in patients with Tourette syndrome.
The concordance rate for autism is extremely high in ______ twins.
Drilling a hole in your head to release demons or recapture child-like awareness....
PET scans of those with ______ show increased activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate and basal ganglia.
Since panic disorder is associated with fear, patients likley have _________ dysfunction
The physical symptoms of ______ disorder are shortness of breath, clammy sweat, heartbeat irregularities, faitness, dizziness, and feeling of unreality
The brain stem, cerebellum and corpus callosum are among the brain regions implicated in _________
______ ________ syndrome may be evidence of OCD in dogs
Most anxiolytic medication work by increasing the availabilti of ______ in the brain
There is evidence that OCD can be triggered by ________
Compulsive hair pulling....
_______ syndrome may be related to damage tothe basal ganglia, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex due to birth trauma, encephalitis, or other head trauma.
Imaging studies show that patients with PTSD have weaker ________ function and stronger amygdala activation, consistant with their symptoms.
It is unclear what neural mechanism underly ______ ________ ________, but the occipital cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system are thought to be involved
generalized anxiety disorder
The striatum, part of the _______ _____, is involved in the stereotyped cognitions associated with OCD
Autistic patients show reduction in the ________ ______ _______; this must be related to the social dysfunction
fusiform face area
Xanax, Valium, Atlivan, Klonopin, and Librium are all _____________, used to treat anxiety disorder
Used to attempt to "treat" mental disorder in the past,; it involves disconnecting parts of the frontal lobe from the rest of the brain.
Panic disorder is associated with structural and functional changes in the ______ lobes
The _______ of autistic patients are 10% larger than controls by ages 2-3
Those with ________ experience underactivity of the prefrontal cortex
The fear of having another panic attack can lead to...
Those who have a specific phobia tend to have abnormalities of the _______, which plays a role in emotions, motor functions, language, and addiction
The _______ ________ _______ vaccine does NOT cause autism; a researcher fabricated the connection
One study suggested that ______ is present in 27% of psychiatric patients