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  1. Gender Stratification
    The unequal distribution of health, power, and privilege between men and women
  2. Sex
    Biological distinction between males and females
  3. Family Wage
    Wage sufficient to raise a family on
  4. Traditional view of gender identity
    • Females are submissive, dependent, sensitive, and emotional
    • Males are independent, rational, and competitive.
  5. Relationship between gender identity and women's inequality at work
    Most believe that women should continue to be the caregiver at home with children and shouldn't be working or should work beneath men in the submissive way women are thought to be.
  6. Intensive Mothering
    Valued; Women are judged as "good" mothers to the extent of how dedicated they are to their children
  7. Mommy wars
    Modern women face 2 socially constructed images of what a good mother looks like: traditional mom vs. supermom
  8. Frumpy Housewife
    perceived as lazy, dull, unproductive; complains about lack of interaction with adults, recognition, and boredom
  9. Selfish Career woman
    perceived as not dedicated enough; experiences guilt; wonders if she is short changing kids
  10. Role Conflict
    Being confronted with incompatible role obligations; i.e. employee and mother roles
  11. Role Overload
    Not having the time or energy to meet demands of one's roles; result of role conflict
  12. Mommy Tracked
    employers consciously or unconciously place women in positions of lower pay and less responsibility because they believe that they will want time off from work to raise family
  13. Second shift
    domestic labor done predominantly by women after they get home from work
  14. Stalled Revolution
    while women have made strides towards equality in the workplace, men have not increased their domestic labor participation
  15. Sex Segregation
    Concentration of men and women into different unequal jobs
  16. Sex differences in promotion
    men tend to occupy positions of greater authority and rank in organizations and occupations; even when women are in positions of authority, they have less power
  17. sex differences in earnings
    women earn 77% of what males earn
  18. The index of occupational segregation
    • Measures the amount og segregation in the labor force.
    • A score of 0 = equal distribution, 100 = total segregation
    • In the USA 1970's and 80's = 70. In 2000's = 52
  19. Glass ceiling
    an invisible barrier preventing women from reaching executive level positions
  20. Glass escalator
    The phenomenon in which men who enter traditionally women's professions tend to get promoted even when they don't want to move up
  21. Effects of maternal employment
    For married mothers: associated with enhanced psychological well being, report high self esteem, positive effect on husband, alleviates financial pressures
  22. ENDA
    • Employment Non Discrimination Act
    • fairness in the workplace has been recognized as a fundamental right protected under federal law
  23. DOMA
    • Defense of Marriage Act
    • passed in 1996
    • Government defines marriage as a legal union between man and woman
    • No US state is required to recognize same sex marriage, even if it has been granted by another state
  24. Why some oppose gay marriage
    • symbolism of marriage
    • religious beliefs
    • DOMA
    • social norms
    • slippery slop
    • fear of change
    • fear of negative effects on children
  25. Why some support gay marriage
    • affirmation of commitment
    • access to legal right/privleges/protections
    • legality equality
  26. Civil union
    legislation created only for same sex couples who seek protections and benefits of legal marriage; fewer benefits, not available in all states
  27. Domestic Partnership
    legislation created for couples (hetero and homosexuals) who seek protections and benefits of legal marriage; fewer benefits, not abailable in all states
  28. Federal rights associated with marriage
    • 1,200 right/benefits/protections
    • includes hospital visitations, health insurance, and pension
  29. Effect of parental expectation on children
  30. Positive factors influencing parenting
    • Parents having higher education
    • Fathers more emotionally involved
    • Technology
  31. Social Environment making parenting difficult
    • Pluralistic Environment
    • Sandwich generation(taking care of young children and older family members)
  32. Stress model of parental effectiveness
    • Stress that parents experience (jobs, finance, safety, stereotypes) result in parental frustration, anger, and depression
    • Household conflicts
    • Leads to poorer parenting practices (inconsitent discipline, limited parental warmth, lower trust)
  33. Transition to parenthood
    • More difficult than adulthood
    • less time to relax
    • decline in emotional and sexual relationship
    • employed mothers establish egalitarian relationships with husbands, may find role becoming traditional
    • If relationship was high quality prior, transition easier
    • Can be difficult with schedules and lack of sleep
  34. Psychological parent
    holds major emotional responsibility for safety and upbringing
  35. Single Mothers
    • 38% of births
    • by choice= 30's/40's, middle or upper middle class, European American, highly educated
    • by circumstance= feel stigmatized, construct support networks
  36. Doing fatherhood
    • involvement= positive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes
    • absence= adverse effects on cognitive, moral, and social development
    • nearly 2 million single dads
    • in 2008, 140,000 families had stay at home dads
  37. Authoritarian Parenting
    • low on emotional warmth and nurturing
    • high on parental direction and control, more likely to spank
  38. Permissive parenting
    • low on parental direction or control
    • high on emotional nurturing, indulgent, leads to spoiling
    • emotional neglect
  39. Authoritative parenting
    • positive parenting
    • warm, firm, fair
    • combines emotional nurturing and support with conscientious direction
    • do better in school and are socially competent
  40. Research on spanking
    • Out of 13,000, 1/3 fathers and 44% mothers have spanked
    • corporeal punishment has generally negative effects
  41. Social Class and parenting
  42. concerted cultivation
    • praise children
    • play with them, read to them
    • create rules about TV
    • engage children in extracurricular activites
  43. Hyper parenting
    parents who hover above, meddling excessively in children's lives
  44. facilitation of natural growth parenting model
    children's abilities are allowed to develop naturally
  45. Race and parenting
  46. Divorce Divide
    • decline in divorce rates varies by social category
    • has declined dramatically for women college graduates
    • 25% of college women who married in 1990 will divorce
  47. Silver divorce
    • divorce in later years
    • baby boom generation (1946-1964)
    • 10 years = 27% divorce
    • 30 years = 50% divorce
    • 40 years = rates slow down
  48. Reasons for stabilizing divorce rates
    • fewer people marry at a young age
    • couples improve their standard of living
    • spouses are negotiating marriage on less rigid terms
    • increased determination to make work
    • cohabitation increased
  49. Divorce trends
    • remarried more likely to divorce
    • premarital sex and cohabitation before marriage increased likelihood of divorce
    • premarital pregnancy increases
  50. Why couples are divorcing
    • economic factors
    • high expectations
    • decreased social, legal, moral constraints
    • having divorced parents
  51. Independence effect
    employment provides unhappily married women ecnomic power
  52. Income effect
    wife's earnings may actually help to hold marriage together by counteracting the negative effects of poverty
  53. Barriers to divorce
    • wife's income smaller percentage
    • church attedance high
    • new child
  54. Consequence of divorce for women
    Lose financially
  55. Consequences of divorce for children
    • school attendance
    • academic performance
    • social and emotional well being
    • behavioral and mental health outcomes
  56. His and her divorce
    • both ex spouses affected by divorce in different ways
    • difficulties could be alleviated if gender roles and discrimination eliminated
  57. "Good" divorce
    promotes a workable family after divorce
  58. Remarriage trends
    • 1/2 marriages are remarriages
    • more frequent in US compared to other decades
    • peaked in 1972 but has declined
  59. Heterogamy in Remarriage
    • more than 1st marriage
    • perspective mates move into 30's and 40's
    • affiliate with diverse backgrounds, differ more in age, education, religion
  60. Happiness, satisfaction, and stability in remarriage
    • words are synonymous
    • there is little difference
    • more equity in remarriages
    • more to do with an ex wife's experience of 1st marriage
  61. Reasons for the low stability of remarriages
    • 60% end in divorce
    • couples are disporportionate (financial background)
    • more accepting of divorce
  62. Unique challenge faced by step families
    • preexisting coalitions
    • loss of family members
    • long integration
    • balance of power
    • loyalty
  63. boundry ambiguity
    any discrepancy in spouse's or parent's report of shared children and/or stepchildren
  64. Relationship with kin
    complex and uncharted
  65. Family law
    few laws exist for remarried family challenges
  66. Stepmother trap
    • mythical loving relationship
    • stigmatized and seen as cruel, vain, selfish, competitive, and even abusive
Card Set:
2011-12-09 20:09:32
sociology marriage family

Marriage and the Family Final
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