approximates 40 phon contour. It is endorsed by the USEPA as the best
way to quantify noise annoyance. Used to measure environmental and
widely referred to as perfect pitch is the ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of an external reference.
The minimum detectable level of a sound in the absence to an other
external sounds. The manner of presentation of the sound and the method
of determining detectability must be specified
the decline in the frequency of firing of a neuron particularly of a receptor
of testing similar to tracking. Involves incrimental steps until until
some threshold is passed. Ex. SPL lowered to below normal threshold raised in 5 dB steps until heard
carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs towards the central nervous system.
a chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell
mathematical model of the human auditory system that predicts the hazard
from any free-field pressure and provides a visual display of the
damage process as it is occurringa
a type of receptor ligand or drug that does not provoke a biological response itself upon binding to a receptor but blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses.
is a tool used by audiologists to predict the amount of speech that is
audible to a patient with a specific hearing loss. Goes from 0-1 being the highest.
A graph showing absolute threshold for pure tones as a function of
frequency. It is usually plotted as hearing loss (deviation form the
average threshold for young normally hearing people) in decibels as a
function of frequency with increasing loss plotted in the downward direction
is the region of the brain that is responsible for the processing of auditory (sound) information.
is defined as a temporary loss of hearing after exposure to sound. This
results in a temporary shift of the auditory threshold known as a
temporary threshold shift (TTS).
The detection of appaoching objects via sound.
Auditory Scene Analysis
is the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements
Auditory Stream Segregation
refers to the perceptual grouping of sounds to form coherent representations of objects in the acoustic scene
What happens when the segregated elements from a scene analysis are
linked together in time. The cocktail party effect is ana example of
approximates the 70 phon contour
refers to temporal masking of quiet sounds that occur moments before a louder sound
are a group of nuclei of varied origin (mostly telencephalic embryonal origin with some diencephalic and mesencephalic elements) in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit
A membrane inside the cochlea with vibrates in response too sound and whose vibrations lead to activity in the auditory pathways
George von was a Hungarian biophysicist born in Budapest
Daniel Psychologist who developed a theory of aesthetics based on complexity
beatsor binaural tones are auditory processing artifacts or apparent sounds
Binaural masking differences
This is a measure of the improvement in detectability of a signal which
can occur under binaural listening conditions. It is the difference in
threshold of the signal (in dB) for the case where the signal and masker
have the same phase and level relationships at the two ears and the
case where the interaural phase and/or level relationships of the signal
and masker are different
Refers to the fact that the binarual system is sloq in adapting to
changes in the interaural parameters to which it is sensitive.
a phenomenon in which people who are perceptually blind in a certain
area of their visual field demonstrate some response to visual stimuli.
Brain stem is the posterior part of the brain
adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. The brain stem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck
Albertis a Canadian psychologist and Professor Emeritus at McGill University who
is a region of the brain with functions linked to speech production.
approximates 100 phon contour
A type of perception where stimuli and distinguished much better if they
are identified as belonging to a different category than if they are
identified as belonging to the same category. It occurs commonly for
speech sounds but it is not unique to speech
is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control (and rhythm).
i.e..The frequency at which the threshold of a given single neuron is lowest
The mechanism in the ear that produces otoacoustic emissions.
is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of
sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.
The cochlear implant is often referred to as a bionic ear.
the electrical potential generated in the hair cells of the organ of Corti in response to acoustic stimulation.
Cocktail Party Effect
describes the ability to focus one's listening attention on a single
talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises ignoring other conversations
A tone perceive as a component of a complex stimulus which is not
present in the sensations produced by the constituent components of the
complex when they are presented alone
Comodulation Masking Release(CMR)
The release from masking which can occur when the components of a masker
have the same amplitude modulation pattern in different frequency
Comparison of stimulus pairs
Comparing 2 different aspects of given variables. Ex. A pair of stimuli AB
A tone composed of a number of sinusoids of different frequencies
A form of nonlinearity in which the range of amplitudes or levels at
the outpt of a system is smaller than the range of amplitubes or levels
at the input
Cone of confusion Refers to an invisible cone that
when a sound is played on the circumference of the cone
Consonant When referencing sound
it is talking about when like sound waves are in phase and build upon each other
Discovered by Houtgast. Ex. A signal is played with a short gap in
between. Noise is played in the gap. When the noise is loud enough the signal sounds like it is one continuous signal
of a nerve fiber passing outward from the cerebral cortex; "corticofugal discharges"
A measure of the "effective bandwidth" of the auditory filter. It is
often defined empirically by measuring some aspect of perception as a
function of the bandwidth of the stimuli and trying to determine a
"break point" in the results. However such break points are rarely clear.
Critical period (for development)
is a limited time in which an event can occur usually to result in some kind of transformation
was intended to quantify the unique annoyance of aircraft noise
Damage Risk Criteria
a list of aspects of sound to check to minimize damage to ones ear. Includes looking at duration loudness
Hallowell Damaged his hearing during hearing tests in WWII. Wrote "Hearing: It's Psychology and Physiology" in 1937 and discussed incredibly small displacement of the basilar membrane.
Delayed auditory feedback
a technique by which the original acoustic speech signal is artificially modified and then fed back via headphones
There is a delay between when a stiulus is given and when the OAE occurs.
Diana Did a lot of work in the world of pitch. Came up with a model that viewed pitch as an ascending spiral
is a general term referring to changes in neural connections during
development as a result of environmental interactions as well as neural
changes induced by learning.
A situation in which the sounds reaching the two ears are not the same
Also caled the just-noticeable difference (JND) or the differential
threshold. The smallest detectable change in a stimulus. The method of
dteremining detectability must be specified.
A situation in which the sounds reaching the two ears are the same.
diplacusis describes the case what a tone of fixed frequency evokes different pitches in the left and right ear.
Distortion product OAE
When two primary tones with the frequencies f 1 and f2 are presented to an ear additional tones with pitches correlated to the frequencies f2 - f 1 and 2 f 1 - f2 become audible
is a catecholamine neurotransmitter present in a wide variety of animals including both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the brain
Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus
is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral surface of the brainstem. Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus it forms the cochlear nucleus
DRD2 A1 Allele
Found in neurons - results in a reduced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbans
is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects.
Title of a book by Neuhoff. Moore looks at the ecological
psyhoacoustics of speech in context of 4 types of human vocalization -
universal signals clicks
otherwise known as motor or effector neurons carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles or glands
The recording of electrical activity along the scalp - measures voltage
fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of
opioid peptides that function as neurotransmitters - produced by the
pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise excitement
Equal Loudness ContourCurves
plotted as a function of frequency showing the sound pressure level required to produce a given loudness level.
Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidth
The ERB of a filter is the bandwidth of a rectangular filter which has
the same peak transmission as that filter and which passes the same
total power for a white noise input. The ERB of the auditory filter is
often used as a measure of the critical bandwidth.
The average value of the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the
auditory filter at moderate sound levels for young listeners with no
known hearing defect.
A scale in which the frequency axis has been converted into units based
on the ERBN of the auditory filter. Each ERB corresponds to a distance
of about 0.89mm on the basilar membrane.
A term used to describe the pattern of neural activity evoked by a
given sound as a function of the characteristic frequency (CF) of the
neurons being excited. Can be used to describe excitation in dB in each
CF. Psychoacoustically - the output of the auditory filters as a
function of center frequency.
A statistical method used to describe variability among observed correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved
A proposed relationship between the magnitude of a physical stimulus and
the intensity or strength that people feel - Weber: just-noticeable
difference between two stimuli is proportional to the magnitude of the
stimuli Fechner: subjective sensation is proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity.
Gustav German experimental psychologist - an early pioneer in experimental psychology and founder of psychophysics
The division of the perceptual field into background and objects that appear to stand out against it.
Fixed action pattern
An instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to
completion - one of the few types of behaviors which can be said to be
hard-wired and instinctive.
Harvey An American physicist known as the "father of stereophonic sound" - he is credited with the invention of the audiometer (evaluates hearing loss) and the hearing aid. He is remembered for his work on the nature of speech and hearing
A type of specialized MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan used to
measure the hemodynamic response (change in blood flow) related to
neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals -
since the early 1990s fMRI has come to dominate the brain mapping field due to its relatively low invasiveness
Masking is when the perception of one sound is affected by the presence
of another sound - forward masking is when the masker is presented
first and the signal follows it.
The process of analyzing and breaking down a complex waveform into a series of sinusoids with specific frequencies amplitudes
Considered to be the hub of most higher functions and understanding and many scientists believe that most behavioral traits
An ambiguous phoneme presented in a lexical context will be perceived as
consistent with the surrounding lexical context - this perceptual
effect is known as the Ganong effect. Eg. "Woo?" would be perceived as
"Wood" for an English speaker.
The graph of a Gaussian function - characteristic symmetric "bell curve"
shape that quickly falls off towards plus/minus infinity.
Factors described by Gestalt psychologists which govern perceptual
organization and their descriptions and principles that apply to the way
physical cues are used to achieve perceptual grouping of different
sensory inputs. The auditory inputs can be governed by similarity good continuation
An American professor of zoologyat who did seminal research in animal behavior
If the same sound signal arrives time delayed at a listener from different directions only the direction of the first arriving sound signal is perceived. The delayed sound signals are localized from the direction of the first arriving signal (the first wave front).
As a process it is defined as a decrease in an elicited behavior
resulting from the repeated presentation of an eliciting stimulus (a
simple form of learning). As a procedure it is defined as the repeated
presentation of an eliciting stimulus that may result in the decline of
the elicited behavior (the process of habituation) an increase of the elicited behavior (the process of sensitization)
Head related transfer function
How an ear receives a sound from a point in space; a pair of HRTFs for
two ears can be used to synthesize a binaural sound that seems to come
from a particular point in space
Part of the cochlear labyrinth where the scala tympani and the scala
vestibuli meet. It is the main component of the cochlear apex. The hair
cells in this area best detect low frequency sounds
Hermann German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science - in physiology and psychology
Ira An American professor of psychology who did pioneering research in human hearing
The use of a variable-length code table for encoding a source symbol
where the variable-length code table has been derived in a particular
way based on the estimated probability of occurrence for each possible
value of the source symbol
A metrical foot (a group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm) used in various types of poetry.
Minor and major thirds and minor and major sixths in music.
The anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear. It connects the malleus to the stapes.
The principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives
input from several more peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory
pathway as well as inputs from the auditory cortex.
Inner hair cells
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti in synaptic contact with sensory as
well as efferent fibers of the auditory nerve - in contrast to the
outer hair cells the inner hair cells are fewer in number
The sound power transmitted through a given area in a sound field. Units = W/m^2
Interaural Intensity Difference
The difference in intensity of a sound reaching each of the ears because of the location of the source.
Interaural Time Difference
The difference in time of a sound reaching each of the ears because of the location of the source.
Just Noticeable Difference
Is the smallest detectable difference between a starting and secondary
level of a particular sensory stimulus. It is also known as the
difference limen or the differential threshold.
Karl Karl Kryter was a psychologist who used S.S. Stevens research to analyze the consequences of bringing commercial jets into New York City airport in 1959 - Kryter's Percieved Noise Level.
Patricia A professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences and co-director of the Institute for Brain and Learning Sciences at the University of Washington. She specializes in language acquisition and the neural bases of language
Daniel A prominent American cognitive psychologist
Alvin An American psychologist whose ideas set the agenda for fifty years of research in the psychology of speech perception and laid the groundwork for modern computer speech synthesis and the understanding of critical issues in cognitive science. Some of his profound investigations were made during his time at Haskins Laboratories where he worked as a research scientist trying to investigate the relationships between speech and acoustics.
Used in questionnaires - respondents indicate level of agreement with a statement can be marking on a numerical scale or a set of ordered words (not annoyed
A set of brain structures including the hippocampus amygdala
Linear correlation A correlation in which the regression line
the line that best describes the relationship between the two variables
An English physicist who with William Ramsay
The loudness level of a sound in phons
A psychophysical method of evaluating stimuli above threshold. The
subject assigns numbers according to the apparent magnitudes of the
stimuli. The results relating the magnitude of sensation S and the
stimulus intensity I usually follow a power law (or Stevens' power law) that is S = kIn where k is a constant and n the exponent which depends on the sensory modality. Example: the magnitude perceived brightness of a 5 degrees target viewed by a dark adapted subject follows the relation S = kI0.33
a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects
with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum. It
transmits the sound vibrations from the eardrum to the incus.
a perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between
hearing and vision in speech perception. "It is a compelling illusion in
which humans perceive mismatched audiovisual speech as a completely
different syllable"[1 This effect may be experienced when a video of one
phoneme's production is dubbed with a sound-recording of a different
phoneme being spoken. Often the perceived phoneme is a third
Medial geniculate body
a neural structure that serves as the last of a series of processing
centers along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the temporal lobe
of the cerebral cortex
Method of adjustment
The method of adjustment asks the subject to control the level of the stimulus instructs them to alter it until it is just barely detectable against the background noise
Method of tracking
The level of the stimulus is automatically varied at a fixed rate.
The subject is asked to press a button when the stimulus is detectable.
Once the button is pressed the level is automatically decreased by the motor-driven attenuator and increased when the button is not pushed. The threshold is thus tracked by the listeners
Minimum Audible Angle
The smallest angular separation that can be detected between the sources of two successive tone pulses
Minimum Audible Field
method of measuring Minimum Audible Angle - Minimal audible field
involves the subject sitting in a sound field and stimulus being
presented via a loudspeaker. The sound level is then measured at the
position of the subjects head with the subject not in the sound field.
Minimum Audible Movement Angle
the angle through which a sound source has to move for it to be
distinguished from a stationary source. Ranges usually from 5 - 21
degrees depending on rate of movement.
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when
the animal observes the same action performed by another. Thus the neuron "mirrors" the behaviour of the other
Mismatch Negativity (MMN)
a component of the event-related potential (ERP) to an odd stimulus in a
sequence of stimuli. It arises from electrical activity in the brain
and is studied within the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology
.For example a rare deviant (d) sound can be interspersed among a series of frequent standard (s) sounds (e.g.
lwhen a sound's overtones suggest a fundamental frequency but the sound
lacks a component at the fundamental frequency itself. However the brain perceives the pitch of a tone not only by its fundamental frequency
Brian is currently Professor of Auditory Perception in the University of Cambridge. His research interests are: the perception of sound; mechanisms of normal hearing and hearing impairments; relationship of auditory abilities to speech perception; design of signal processing hearing aids for sensorineural hearing loss; methods for fitting hearing aids to the individual; design and specification of high-fidelity sound-reproducing equipment; perception of music and of musical instruments. He has written or edited 15 books and over 500 scientific papers and book chapters
Motor Theory of Speech Reception
the hypothesis that people perceive spoken words by identifying the
vocal tract gestures with which they are pronounced rather than by
identifying the sound patterns that speech generates.
multiple correlation is a linear relationship among more than two
variables. a higher value indicates a stronger relationship among the
variables with a value of one indicating that all data points fall exactly on a line in multidimensional space and a value of zero indicating no relationship at all between the independent variables collectively and the dependent variable.
predicts that if the "looks" at a stimulus are independent and information is combined optimally sensitivity should increase for 2 pulses relative to 1 pulse. Specifically
a mechanism by which groups of neurons can encode the timing of a sound waveform. In all cases neural firing patterns in time determine the perception of pitch. The combination known as the place–volley theory uses both mechanisms in combination
endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse
the subject is presented with a notched noise as the masker and a
sinusoid (pure tone) as the signal. Notched noise is used as a masker to
prevent the subject hearing beats that occur if a sinusoidal masker is
used. The notched noise is noise with a notch around the frequency of
the signal the subject is trying to detect and contains noise within a certain bandwidth.
Organ of Corti
the organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory cells or "hair cells." The Organ of Corti is the structure that transduces pressure waves to action potentials.
an organism's immediate response to a change in its environment when that change is not sudden enough to elicit the startle reflex.
Outer Hair Cells
the receptor potential triggers active vibrations of the cell body.
The effect of this system is to non-linearly amplify quiet sounds more
than large ones so that a wide range of sound pressures can be reduced to a much smaller range of hair displacements.
a membrane-covered opening which leads from the middle ear to the
vestibule of the inner ear. Vibrations that come into contact with the
tympanic membrane travel through the three ossicles and into the inner
ear. The oval window is the intersection of the middle ear with the
inner ear and is directly contacted by the stapes; by the time vibrations reach the oval window
with consonance being a greater coincidence of partials (called
harmonics or overtones when occurring in harmonic timbres) (Helmholtz 1877/1954). By this definition
emission tomography--nuclear medicine imaging technique that produces a
three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body.
the tendency for nerve firings to occur at particular phase of the stimulating waveform on the basilar membrane
the basic unit for loudness level
the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances.
In a classic experiment Richard M. Warren (1970) replaced one phoneme of a word with a cough-like sound. His subjects restored the missing speech sound perceptually without any difficulty and what is more
a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power
spectral density (energy or power per Hz) is inversely proportional to
the frequency. In pink noise each octave carries an equal amount of noise power.
that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds may be ordered on a musical scale
a theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on
where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar
membrane. By this theory the pitch of a musical tone is determined by the places where the membrane vibrates
time histogramperistimulus time histogram and poststimulus time histogram both abbreviated PSTH or PST histogram
a special kind of mathematical relationship between two quantities.
When the frequency of an event varies as a power of some attribute of
that event (e.g. its size) the frequency is said to follow a power law
law of the first wavefront -- a binaural psychoacoustic effect. It
means: If the same sound signal arrives time delayed at a listener from
different directions only the direction of the first arriving sound signal is perceived. The delayed sound signals are localized from the direction of the first arriving signal (the first wave front).
has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors personality expression
defined as a progressive bilateral symmetrical age-related sensorineural
hearing loss. The hearing loss is most marked at higher frequencies.
Hearing loss that accumulates with age but is caused by factors other
than normal aging is not presbycusis although differentiating the individual effects of multiple causes of hearing loss can be difficult.
tuning curveThe shapes of auditory filters are found by analysis of psychoacoustic tuning which are graphs that show a subject's threshold for detection of a tone as a function of masker parameters. Psychoacoustic tuning curves can be measured using the notched-noise method
When sensorineural hearing loss (damage to the cochlea or in the brain) is present the perception of loudness is altered. Sounds at low levels (often perceived by those without hearing loss as relatively quiet) are no longer audible to the hearing impaired
Reward Deficiency Syndrome
comprises a spectrum of impulsive compulsive
weightingStands for Revised Low-Frequency B weighting. similar to B-weighting except that the high frequency transfer function is flat (instead of having a high frequency roll-off). This spectral weighting was found to be an effective objective measurement of loudness of typical broadcast material by Soulodre (2004)
Is one of two openings into the inner ear allows fluid in the cochlea to move
The time required for reflections of a direct sound to decay by 60 dB below the level of the direct sound.
Olverwrote books about his experience with neurological patients. Tourette's syndrome
Point at which a nerve fiber is firing rapidly as possible and further stimulations is incapable of increasing the firing rate.
(also caled the cochlear duct) is an endolymph filled cavity inside the cochlea located in between the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli. Houses the Organ of Corti
Located in the cochlea this perilymph-filled cavity Transduces the movement of air that causes the tympanic membrane and the ossicles to vibrate
a perilymph-filled cavity inside the cochlea of the inner ear that conducts sound vibrations to the scala media
Pierre performed some crucial experiments in the 1950s that demonstrated an important attribute of timbre in his famous ‘cut bell’ experiments. Schaeffer recorded a number of orchestral instruments on tape. Then
the amount in decibels that a stimulus is above the hearing threshold.
Signal Detection Theory
a means to quantify the ability to discern between information-bearing energy patterns (called stimulus in humans sensory factors) and random energy patterns that distract from the information
Sounds emitted in response to 2 simultaneous tones of different frequencies
Sine wave speech
a technique for synthesizing speech by replacing the formants (main
bands of energy) with pure tone whistles. listeners can perceive
continuous speech without traditional speech cues.
A unit of subjective loudness. A 1-kHz sinusoid presented binaurally in
free field from a frontal direction is defined as having a loudness of 1
sone when its level is 40 dB SPL. The loudness in sones roughly
doubles for each 10-dB increase in sound level above 40 dB SPL.
a sound or combination of sounds that forms or arises from an immersive
environment. Refers to both the natural acoustic environment and human
A display showing how the short-term spectrum of a sound changes over time. The abscissa is time the ordinate is frequency
Speech Transmission Index
Measurement of Speech transmission quality. measures some physical characteristics of a transmission channel (a room electro-acoustic equipment
A single nerve impulse or action potential.
Located in the middle ear the stapes transmits the sound vibrations from the incus to the membrane of the inner ear inside the fenestra ovalis.
S.S. American psychologist who founded Harvard's Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory and is credited with the introduction of Stevens' power law
Stop consonant In phonetics
a stop is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract
Numerous capillary loops and small blood vessels located in the upper
portion of the spiral ligament. Produces endolymph for the scala media one of the three fluid-filled compartments of the cochlea.
A layered structure that directs behavioral responses toward specific
points in egocentric ("body-centered") space. The superficial layers
are sensory-related and receive input from the eyes as well as other sensory systems.
or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm; a placement of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn't normally occur
A neurologically based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway
When two tones are played simultaneously a listener can sometimes perceive an additional tone whose frequency is a sum or difference of the two frequencies.Also called a “Combination Tone
Effectively hinged at one side so that when the Basilar Membrane moves up and down a shearing motion is created between the Basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane. As a result, the stereocilia at the tops of the hair cells are displaced.
How chunks of information is linked together in the brain.
Temporal Modulation Transfer Function
The modulation depth required for detection of sinusoidal modulation of a carrier plotted as a function of modulation frequency.
Temporary Threshold Shift
temporary loss of hearing after exposure to sound.
… is that attribute of auditory senesation in terms of which a listener
can judge that two sounds similarly presented and having the same
loudness and pitch are dissimilar. Put more simply it relates to the quality of a sound.
Helmholtz believed that the pillar cells of the cochlea generated a
tonotopic representation of frequency with the high frequencies
represented in the base (closest to the oval window) and the low
frequencies represented in the apex (farthest from the oval window and
close to the helicotrema).
Undesired release of inhibition
modelcomputer program for running perceptual simulations. These
simulations are predictions about how a human mind/brain processes
speech sounds and words as they are heard in real time.
A disturbance (an oscillation) that travels through space and time accompanied by the transfer of energy.
For a single nerve fiber this is a graph of the lowest sound level at which the fiber will respond
A narrow band of noise is placed midway between two masking tones of equal amplitude and the threshold for the noise signal is measured. Measured again after the two tones have moved farther apart in frequency. Measures critical Bandwidth.
Many sounds produced by musical instruments or the human voice when
singing can be characterized as complex tones in which the fundamental
frequency undergoes quasi-periodic fluctuations.
TimeIt is defined as the length of time that passes between when a stop consonant is released and when voicingoicing the vibratione vocal folds the vocal folds
A German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. Weber's Law. His work upon the ear and upon cutaneous senses (pressure temperature) led to the introduction of the experimental method in psychology.
Is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked since the late
nineteenth century to speech (the other is Broca's area). It is involved
in the understanding of written and spoken language.
A noise with a spectrum level that does not vary as a function of frequency.
Did experiments on sound localization. If luz asks us about this guy, I'm gonna be pissed. He's mentioned in one slide as a source... This dude wrote an article... big whoop
German physician, psychologist, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as the “father of experimental psychology.” Founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig.
German acoustics scientist, co-wrote the standard work psychoacoustics (book). Developed a method for the computation of noise levels. Zwicker Tones: