Psychoacoustics List of Terms - Sheet1(1).txt

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Psychoacoustics List of Terms - Sheet1(1).txt
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  1. A-weighting
    • approximates 40 phon contour. It is endorsed by the USEPA as the best
    • way to quantify noise annoyance. Used to measure environmental and
    • industrial noise.
  2. Absolute pitch
    widely referred to as perfect pitch is the ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of an external reference.
  3. Absolute threshold
    • The minimum detectable level of a sound in the absence to an other
    • external sounds. The manner of presentation of the sound and the method
    • of determining detectability must be specified
  4. Adaptation
    the decline in the frequency of firing of a neuron particularly of a receptor
  5. Adaptive ProcedureMethod
    • of testing similar to tracking. Involves incrimental steps until until
    • some threshold is passed. Ex. SPL lowered to below normal threshold raised in 5 dB steps until heard
  6. Afferent Nerves
    carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs towards the central nervous system.
  7. Agonist (neurophysiological)
    a chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell
  8. AHAAH Model
    • mathematical model of the human auditory system that predicts the hazard
    • from any free-field pressure and provides a visual display of the
    • damage process as it is occurringa
  9. Antagonist (neurophysiological)
    a type of receptor ligand or drug that does not provoke a biological response itself upon binding to a receptor but blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses.
  10. Articulation Index
    • is a tool used by audiologists to predict the amount of speech that is
    • audible to a patient with a specific hearing loss. Goes from 0-1 being the highest.
  11. Audiogram
    • A graph showing absolute threshold for pure tones as a function of
    • frequency. It is usually plotted as hearing loss (deviation form the
    • average threshold for young normally hearing people) in decibels as a
    • function of frequency with increasing loss plotted in the downward direction
  12. Auditory cortex
    is the region of the brain that is responsible for the processing of auditory (sound) information.
  13. Auditory fatigue
    • is defined as a temporary loss of hearing after exposure to sound. This
    • results in a temporary shift of the auditory threshold known as a
    • temporary threshold shift (TTS).
  14. Auditory looming
    The detection of appaoching objects via sound.
  15. Auditory Scene Analysis
    is the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements
  16. Auditory Stream Segregation
    refers to the perceptual grouping of sounds to form coherent representations of objects in the acoustic scene
  17. Auditory streaming
    • What happens when the segregated elements from a scene analysis are
    • linked together in time. The cocktail party effect is ana example of
    • this.
  18. B-weighting
    approximates the 70 phon contour
  19. Backward Masking
    refers to temporal masking of quiet sounds that occur moments before a louder sound
  20. Basal ganglia
    are a group of nuclei of varied origin (mostly telencephalic embryonal origin with some diencephalic and mesencephalic elements) in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit
  21. Basilar membrane
    A membrane inside the cochlea with vibrates in response too sound and whose vibrations lead to activity in the auditory pathways
  22. Bekesy
    George von was a Hungarian biophysicist born in Budapest
  23. Berlyne
    Daniel Psychologist who developed a theory of aesthetics based on complexity
  24. Binaural
    beatsor binaural tones are auditory processing artifacts or apparent sounds
  25. Binaural masking differences
    • This is a measure of the improvement in detectability of a signal which
    • can occur under binaural listening conditions. It is the difference in
    • threshold of the signal (in dB) for the case where the signal and masker
    • have the same phase and level relationships at the two ears and the
    • case where the interaural phase and/or level relationships of the signal
    • and masker are different
  26. Binaural sluggishness
    • Refers to the fact that the binarual system is sloq in adapting to
    • changes in the interaural parameters to which it is sensitive.
  27. Blind sight
    • a phenomenon in which people who are perceptually blind in a certain
    • area of their visual field demonstrate some response to visual stimuli.
  28. Brain stem is the posterior part of the brain
    adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. The brain stem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck
  29. Bregman
    Albertis a Canadian psychologist and Professor Emeritus at McGill University who
  30. Broca’s Area
    is a region of the brain with functions linked to speech production.
  31. C-weighting
    approximates 100 phon contour
  32. Categorical perception
    • A type of perception where stimuli and distinguished much better if they
    • are identified as belonging to a different category than if they are
    • identified as belonging to the same category. It occurs commonly for
    • speech sounds but it is not unique to speech
  33. Cerebellum
    is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control (and rhythm).
  34. Characteristic frequency
    i.e..The frequency at which the threshold of a given single neuron is lowest
  35. Cochlear amplifier
    The mechanism in the ear that produces otoacoustic emissions.
  36. Cochlear implant
    • is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of
    • sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.
    • The cochlear implant is often referred to as a bionic ear.
  37. Cochlear microphonic
    the electrical potential generated in the hair cells of the organ of Corti in response to acoustic stimulation.
  38. Cocktail Party Effect
    • describes the ability to focus one's listening attention on a single
    • talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises ignoring other conversations
  39. Combination tone
    • A tone perceive as a component of a complex stimulus which is not
    • present in the sensations produced by the constituent components of the
    • complex when they are presented alone
  40. Comodulation Masking Release(CMR)
    • The release from masking which can occur when the components of a masker
    • have the same amplitude modulation pattern in different frequency
    • regions
  41. Comparison of stimulus pairs
    Comparing 2 different aspects of given variables. Ex. A pair of stimuli AB
  42. Complex tone
    A tone composed of a number of sinusoids of different frequencies
  43. Compressive non-linearity
    • A form of nonlinearity in which the range of amplitudes or levels at
    • the outpt of a system is smaller than the range of amplitubes or levels
    • at the input
  44. Cone of confusion Refers to an invisible cone that
    when a sound is played on the circumference of the cone
  45. Consonant When referencing sound
    it is talking about when like sound waves are in phase and build upon each other
  46. Context-dependent restructuring
  47. Continuity effect
    • Discovered by Houtgast. Ex. A signal is played with a short gap in
    • between. Noise is played in the gap. When the noise is loud enough the signal sounds like it is one continuous signal
  48. Corticofugal
    of a nerve fiber passing outward from the cerebral cortex; "corticofugal discharges"
  49. Critical band
    • A measure of the "effective bandwidth" of the auditory filter. It is
    • often defined empirically by measuring some aspect of perception as a
    • function of the bandwidth of the stimuli and trying to determine a
    • "break point" in the results. However such break points are rarely clear.
  50. Critical period (for development)
    is a limited time in which an event can occur usually to result in some kind of transformation
  51. D-weighting
    was intended to quantify the unique annoyance of aircraft noise
  52. Damage Risk Criteria
    a list of aspects of sound to check to minimize damage to ones ear. Includes looking at duration loudness
  53. Davis
    Hallowell Damaged his hearing during hearing tests in WWII. Wrote "Hearing: It's Psychology and Physiology" in 1937 and discussed incredibly small displacement of the basilar membrane.
  54. Delayed auditory feedback
    a technique by which the original acoustic speech signal is artificially modified and then fed back via headphones
  55. Delayed OAE
    There is a delay between when a stiulus is given and when the OAE occurs.
  56. Deutsch
    Diana Did a lot of work in the world of pitch. Came up with a model that viewed pitch as an ascending spiral
  57. Developmental plasticity
    • is a general term referring to changes in neural connections during
    • development as a result of environmental interactions as well as neural
    • changes induced by learning.
  58. Dichotic
    A situation in which the sounds reaching the two ears are not the same
  59. Difference limen(DL)
    • Also caled the just-noticeable difference (JND) or the differential
    • threshold. The smallest detectable change in a stimulus. The method of
    • dteremining detectability must be specified.
  60. Diotic
    A situation in which the sounds reaching the two ears are the same.
  61. DiplacusisBinaural
    diplacusis describes the case what a tone of fixed frequency evokes different pitches in the left and right ear.
  62. Distortion product OAE
    When two primary tones with the frequencies f 1 and f2 are presented to an ear additional tones with pitches correlated to the frequencies f2 - f 1 and 2 f 1 - f2 become audible
  63. Dopamine
    is a catecholamine neurotransmitter present in a wide variety of animals including both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the brain
  64. Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus
    is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral surface of the brainstem. Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus it forms the cochlear nucleus
  65. DRD2 A1 Allele
    Found in neurons - results in a reduced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbans
  66. Echolocation
    is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects.
  67. Ecological psychoacoustics
    • Title of a book by Neuhoff. Moore looks at the ecological
    • psyhoacoustics of speech in context of 4 types of human vocalization -
    • universal signals clicks
  68. Efferent nerves
    otherwise known as motor or effector neurons carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles or glands
  69. Electroencephalography
    • The recording of electrical activity along the scalp - measures voltage
    • fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of
    • the brain.
  70. EndorphinsEndogenous
    • opioid peptides that function as neurotransmitters - produced by the
    • pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise excitement
  71. Equal Loudness ContourCurves
    plotted as a function of frequency showing the sound pressure level required to produce a given loudness level.
  72. Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidth
    • The ERB of a filter is the bandwidth of a rectangular filter which has
    • the same peak transmission as that filter and which passes the same
    • total power for a white noise input. The ERB of the auditory filter is
    • often used as a measure of the critical bandwidth.
  73. ERBN
    • The average value of the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the
    • auditory filter at moderate sound levels for young listeners with no
    • known hearing defect.
  74. ERBN scale
    • A scale in which the frequency axis has been converted into units based
    • on the ERBN of the auditory filter. Each ERB corresponds to a distance
    • of about 0.89mm on the basilar membrane.
  75. Excitation pattern
    • A term used to describe the pattern of neural activity evoked by a
    • given sound as a function of the characteristic frequency (CF) of the
    • neurons being excited. Can be used to describe excitation in dB in each
    • CF. Psychoacoustically - the output of the auditory filters as a
    • function of center frequency.
  76. Factor analysis
    A statistical method used to describe variability among observed correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved
  77. Fechner-Weber law
    • A proposed relationship between the magnitude of a physical stimulus and
    • the intensity or strength that people feel - Weber: just-noticeable
    • difference between two stimuli is proportional to the magnitude of the
    • stimuli Fechner: subjective sensation is proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity.
  78. Fechner
    Gustav German experimental psychologist - an early pioneer in experimental psychology and founder of psychophysics
  79. Field-ground phenomenon
    The division of the perceptual field into background and objects that appear to stand out against it.
  80. Fixed action pattern
    • An instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to
    • completion - one of the few types of behaviors which can be said to be
    • hard-wired and instinctive.
  81. Fletcher
    Harvey An American physicist known as the "father of stereophonic sound" - he is credited with the invention of the audiometer (evaluates hearing loss) and the hearing aid. He is remembered for his work on the nature of speech and hearing
  82. fMRI
    • A type of specialized MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan used to
    • measure the hemodynamic response (change in blood flow) related to
    • neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals -
    • since the early 1990s fMRI has come to dominate the brain mapping field due to its relatively low invasiveness
  83. Forward masking
    • Masking is when the perception of one sound is affected by the presence
    • of another sound - forward masking is when the masker is presented
    • first and the signal follows it.
  84. Fourier analysis
    The process of analyzing and breaking down a complex waveform into a series of sinusoids with specific frequencies amplitudes
  85. Frontal cortex
    Considered to be the hub of most higher functions and understanding and many scientists believe that most behavioral traits
  86. Ganong effect
    • An ambiguous phoneme presented in a lexical context will be perceived as
    • consistent with the surrounding lexical context - this perceptual
    • effect is known as the Ganong effect. Eg. "Woo?" would be perceived as
    • "Wood" for an English speaker.
  87. Gaussian curve
    • The graph of a Gaussian function - characteristic symmetric "bell curve"
    • shape that quickly falls off towards plus/minus infinity.
  88. Gestalt rules
    • Factors described by Gestalt psychologists which govern perceptual
    • organization and their descriptions and principles that apply to the way
    • physical cues are used to achieve perceptual grouping of different
    • sensory inputs. The auditory inputs can be governed by similarity good continuation
  89. Griffin, Donald
    An American professor of zoologyat who did seminal research in animal behavior
  90. Haas effect
    If the same sound signal arrives time delayed at a listener from different directions only the direction of the first arriving sound signal is perceived. The delayed sound signals are localized from the direction of the first arriving signal (the first wave front).
  91. Habituation
    • As a process it is defined as a decrease in an elicited behavior
    • resulting from the repeated presentation of an eliciting stimulus (a
    • simple form of learning). As a procedure it is defined as the repeated
    • presentation of an eliciting stimulus that may result in the decline of
    • the elicited behavior (the process of habituation) an increase of the elicited behavior (the process of sensitization)
  92. Head related transfer function
    • How an ear receives a sound from a point in space; a pair of HRTFs for
    • two ears can be used to synthesize a binaural sound that seems to come
    • from a particular point in space
  93. Helicotrema
    • Part of the cochlear labyrinth where the scala tympani and the scala
    • vestibuli meet. It is the main component of the cochlear apex. The hair
    • cells in this area best detect low frequency sounds
  94. Helmholtz
    Hermann German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science - in physiology and psychology
  95. Hirsh
    Ira An American professor of psychology who did pioneering research in human hearing
  96. Huffman sequence
    • The use of a variable-length code table for encoding a source symbol
    • where the variable-length code table has been derived in a particular
    • way based on the estimated probability of occurrence for each possible
    • value of the source symbol
  97. Iamb
    A metrical foot (a group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm) used in various types of poetry.
  98. Imperfect Consonance
    Minor and major thirds and minor and major sixths in music.
  99. Incus
    The anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear. It connects the malleus to the stapes.
  100. Inferior colliculus
    • The principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives
    • input from several more peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory
    • pathway as well as inputs from the auditory cortex.
  101. Inner hair cells
    • Sensory cells in the organ of Corti in synaptic contact with sensory as
    • well as efferent fibers of the auditory nerve - in contrast to the
    • outer hair cells the inner hair cells are fewer in number
  102. Intensity
    The sound power transmitted through a given area in a sound field. Units = W/m^2
  103. Interaural Intensity Difference
    The difference in intensity of a sound reaching each of the ears because of the location of the source.
  104. Interaural Time Difference
    The difference in time of a sound reaching each of the ears because of the location of the source.
  105. Just Noticeable Difference
    • Is the smallest detectable difference between a starting and secondary
    • level of a particular sensory stimulus. It is also known as the
    • difference limen or the differential threshold.
  106. Kryter
    Karl Karl Kryter was a psychologist who used S.S. Stevens research to analyze the consequences of bringing commercial jets into New York City airport in 1959 - Kryter's Percieved Noise Level.
  107. Kuhl
    Patricia A professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences and co-director of the Institute for Brain and Learning Sciences at the University of Washington. She specializes in language acquisition and the neural bases of language
  108. Levitin
    Daniel A prominent American cognitive psychologist
  109. Liberman
    Alvin An American psychologist whose ideas set the agenda for fifty years of research in the psychology of speech perception and laid the groundwork for modern computer speech synthesis and the understanding of critical issues in cognitive science. Some of his profound investigations were made during his time at Haskins Laboratories where he worked as a research scientist trying to investigate the relationships between speech and acoustics.
  110. Likert Scale
    Used in questionnaires - respondents indicate level of agreement with a statement can be marking on a numerical scale or a set of ordered words (not annoyed
  111. Limbic system
    A set of brain structures including the hippocampus amygdala
  112. Linear correlation A correlation in which the regression line
    the line that best describes the relationship between the two variables
  113. Lord Rayleigh
    An English physicist who with William Ramsay
  114. Loudness level
    The loudness level of a sound in phons
  115. Magnitude estimation
    • A psychophysical method of evaluating stimuli above threshold. The
    • subject assigns numbers according to the apparent magnitudes of the
    • stimuli. The results relating the magnitude of sensation S and the
    • stimulus intensity I usually follow a power law (or Stevens' power law) that is S = kIn where k is a constant and n the exponent which depends on the sensory modality. Example: the magnitude perceived brightness of a 5 degrees target viewed by a dark adapted subject follows the relation S = kI0.33
  116. Malleus
    • a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects
    • with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum. It
    • transmits the sound vibrations from the eardrum to the incus.
  117. McGurk Effect
    • a perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between
    • hearing and vision in speech perception. "It is a compelling illusion in
    • which humans perceive mismatched audiovisual speech as a completely
    • different syllable"[1 This effect may be experienced when a video of one
    • phoneme's production is dubbed with a sound-recording of a different
    • phoneme being spoken. Often the perceived phoneme is a third
  118. Medial geniculate body
    • a neural structure that serves as the last of a series of processing
    • centers along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the temporal lobe
    • of the cerebral cortex
  119. Method of adjustment
    The method of adjustment asks the subject to control the level of the stimulus instructs them to alter it until it is just barely detectable against the background noise
  120. Method of tracking
    • The level of the stimulus is automatically varied at a fixed rate.
    • The subject is asked to press a button when the stimulus is detectable.
    • Once the button is pressed the level is automatically decreased by the motor-driven attenuator and increased when the button is not pushed. The threshold is thus tracked by the listeners
  121. Minimum Audible Angle
    The smallest angular separation that can be detected between the sources of two successive tone pulses
  122. Minimum Audible Field
    • method of measuring Minimum Audible Angle - Minimal audible field
    • involves the subject sitting in a sound field and stimulus being
    • presented via a loudspeaker. The sound level is then measured at the
    • position of the subjects head with the subject not in the sound field.
  123. Minimum Audible Movement Angle
    • the angle through which a sound source has to move for it to be
    • distinguished from a stationary source. Ranges usually from 5 - 21
    • degrees depending on rate of movement.
  124. Mirror neuron
    • A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when
    • the animal observes the same action performed by another. Thus the neuron "mirrors" the behaviour of the other
  125. Mismatch Negativity (MMN)
    • a component of the event-related potential (ERP) to an odd stimulus in a
    • sequence of stimuli. It arises from electrical activity in the brain
    • and is studied within the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology
    • .For example a rare deviant (d) sound can be interspersed among a series of frequent standard (s) sounds (e.g.
  126. Missing fundamenta
    • lwhen a sound's overtones suggest a fundamental frequency but the sound
    • lacks a component at the fundamental frequency itself. However the brain perceives the pitch of a tone not only by its fundamental frequency
  127. Moore
    Brian is currently Professor of Auditory Perception in the University of Cambridge. His research interests are: the perception of sound; mechanisms of normal hearing and hearing impairments; relationship of auditory abilities to speech perception; design of signal processing hearing aids for sensorineural hearing loss; methods for fitting hearing aids to the individual; design and specification of high-fidelity sound-reproducing equipment; perception of music and of musical instruments. He has written or edited 15 books and over 500 scientific papers and book chapters
  128. Motor Theory of Speech Reception
    • the hypothesis that people perceive spoken words by identifying the
    • vocal tract gestures with which they are pronounced rather than by
    • identifying the sound patterns that speech generates.
  129. Multiple correlation
    • multiple correlation is a linear relationship among more than two
    • variables. a higher value indicates a stronger relationship among the
    • variables with a value of one indicating that all data points fall exactly on a line in multidimensional space and a value of zero indicating no relationship at all between the independent variables collectively and the dependent variable.
  130. Multiple looks
    predicts that if the "looks" at a stimulus are independent and information is combined optimally sensitivity should increase for 2 pulses relative to 1 pulse. Specifically
  131. Neural volley
    a mechanism by which groups of neurons can encode the timing of a sound waveform. In all cases neural firing patterns in time determine the perception of pitch. The combination known as the place–volley theory uses both mechanisms in combination
  132. Neurotransmitter
    endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse
  133. Notched-noise method
    • the subject is presented with a notched noise as the masker and a
    • sinusoid (pure tone) as the signal. Notched noise is used as a masker to
    • prevent the subject hearing beats that occur if a sinusoidal masker is
    • used.[5] The notched noise is noise with a notch around the frequency of
    • the signal the subject is trying to detect and contains noise within a certain bandwidth.
  134. Organ of Corti
    the organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory cells or "hair cells." The Organ of Corti is the structure that transduces pressure waves to action potentials.
  135. Orienting response
    an organism's immediate response to a change in its environment when that change is not sudden enough to elicit the startle reflex.
  136. Outer Hair Cells
    • the receptor potential triggers active vibrations of the cell body.
    • The effect of this system is to non-linearly amplify quiet sounds more
    • than large ones so that a wide range of sound pressures can be reduced to a much smaller range of hair displacements.
  137. Oval window
    • a membrane-covered opening which leads from the middle ear to the
    • vestibule of the inner ear. Vibrations that come into contact with the
    • tympanic membrane travel through the three ossicles and into the inner
    • ear. The oval window is the intersection of the middle ear with the
    • inner ear and is directly contacted by the stapes; by the time vibrations reach the oval window
  138. Pauser unit
  139. Perfect consonance
    • with consonance being a greater coincidence of partials (called
    • harmonics or overtones when occurring in harmonic timbres) (Helmholtz 1877/1954). By this definition
  140. PET ScanPositron
    • emission tomography--nuclear medicine imaging technique that produces a
    • three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body.
  141. Phase-locking
    the tendency for nerve firings to occur at particular phase of the stimulating waveform on the basilar membrane
  142. Phon
    the basic unit for loudness level
  143. Phoneme
    the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances.
  144. Phonemic restoration
    In a classic experiment Richard M. Warren (1970) replaced one phoneme of a word with a cough-like sound. His subjects restored the missing speech sound perceptually without any difficulty and what is more
  145. Pink noises
    • a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power
    • spectral density (energy or power per Hz) is inversely proportional to
    • the frequency. In pink noise each octave carries an equal amount of noise power.
  146. Pitch
    that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds may be ordered on a musical scale
  147. Place hearing
    • a theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on
    • where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar
    • membrane. By this theory the pitch of a musical tone is determined by the places where the membrane vibrates
  148. Post-stimulus
    time histogramperistimulus time histogram and poststimulus time histogram both abbreviated PSTH or PST histogram
  149. Power law
    • a special kind of mathematical relationship between two quantities.
    • When the frequency of an event varies as a power of some attribute of
    • that event (e.g. its size) the frequency is said to follow a power law
  150. Precedence Effect
    • law of the first wavefront -- a binaural psychoacoustic effect. It
    • means: If the same sound signal arrives time delayed at a listener from
    • different directions only the direction of the first arriving sound signal is perceived. The delayed sound signals are localized from the direction of the first arriving signal (the first wave front).
  151. Prefrontal cortex
    has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors personality expression
  152. Presbycusis
    • defined as a progressive bilateral symmetrical age-related sensorineural
    • hearing loss. The hearing loss is most marked at higher frequencies.
    • Hearing loss that accumulates with age but is caused by factors other
    • than normal aging is not presbycusis although differentiating the individual effects of multiple causes of hearing loss can be difficult.
  153. Psychophysical
    tuning curveThe shapes of auditory filters are found by analysis of psychoacoustic tuning which are graphs that show a subject's threshold for detection of a tone as a function of masker parameters. Psychoacoustic tuning curves can be measured using the notched-noise method
  154. Recruitment
    When sensorineural hearing loss (damage to the cochlea or in the brain) is present the perception of loudness is altered. Sounds at low levels (often perceived by those without hearing loss as relatively quiet) are no longer audible to the hearing impaired
  155. Reward Deficiency Syndrome
    comprises a spectrum of impulsive compulsive
  156. RLB
    weightingStands for Revised Low-Frequency B weighting. similar to B-weighting except that the high frequency transfer function is flat (instead of having a high frequency roll-off). This spectral weighting was found to be an effective objective measurement of loudness of typical broadcast material by Soulodre (2004)
  157. Round window
    Is one of two openings into the inner ear allows fluid in the cochlea to move
  158. RT60
    The time required for reflections of a direct sound to decay by 60 dB below the level of the direct sound.
  159. Sacks
    Olverwrote books about his experience with neurological patients. Tourette's syndrome
  160. Saturation
    Point at which a nerve fiber is firing rapidly as possible and further stimulations is incapable of increasing the firing rate.
  161. Scala Media
    (also caled the cochlear duct) is an endolymph filled cavity inside the cochlea located in between the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli. Houses the Organ of Corti
  162. Scala Tympani
    Located in the cochlea this perilymph-filled cavity Transduces the movement of air that causes the tympanic membrane and the ossicles to vibrate
  163. Scale Vestibuli
    a perilymph-filled cavity inside the cochlea of the inner ear that conducts sound vibrations to the scala media
  164. Schaeffer
    Pierre performed some crucial experiments in the 1950s that demonstrated an important attribute of timbre in his famous ‘cut bell’ experiments. Schaeffer recorded a number of orchestral instruments on tape. Then
  165. Sensation Level
    the amount in decibels that a stimulus is above the hearing threshold.
  166. Signal Detection Theory
    a means to quantify the ability to discern between information-bearing energy patterns (called stimulus in humans sensory factors) and random energy patterns that distract from the information
  167. Simultaneous OAE
    Sounds emitted in response to 2 simultaneous tones of different frequencies
  168. Sine wave speech
    • a technique for synthesizing speech by replacing the formants (main
    • bands of energy) with pure tone whistles. listeners can perceive
    • continuous speech without traditional speech cues.
  169. Sone
    • A unit of subjective loudness. A 1-kHz sinusoid presented binaurally in
    • free field from a frontal direction is defined as having a loudness of 1
    • sone when its level is 40 dB SPL. The loudness in sones roughly
    • doubles for each 10-dB increase in sound level above 40 dB SPL.
  170. Soundscape
    • a sound or combination of sounds that forms or arises from an immersive
    • environment. Refers to both the natural acoustic environment and human
    • induced sounds.
  171. Spectrogram
    A display showing how the short-term spectrum of a sound changes over time. The abscissa is time the ordinate is frequency
  172. Speech Transmission Index
    Measurement of Speech transmission quality. measures some physical characteristics of a transmission channel (a room electro-acoustic equipment
  173. Spike
    A single nerve impulse or action potential.
  174. Stapes
    Located in the middle ear the stapes transmits the sound vibrations from the incus to the membrane of the inner ear inside the fenestra ovalis.
  175. Stevens
    S.S. American psychologist who founded Harvard's Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory and is credited with the introduction of Stevens' power law
  176. Stop consonant In phonetics
    a stop is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract
  177. Stria vascularis
    • Numerous capillary loops and small blood vessels located in the upper
    • portion of the spiral ligament. Produces endolymph for the scala media one of the three fluid-filled compartments of the cochlea.
  178. Suga, Nobuo
    Japanese biologist
  179. Superior colliculus
    • A layered structure that directs behavioral responses toward specific
    • points in egocentric ("body-centered") space. The superficial layers
    • are sensory-related and receive input from the eyes as well as other sensory systems.
  180. SyncopationDisturbance
    or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm; a placement of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn't normally occur
  181. Synesthesia
    A neurologically based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway
  182. Tartini tone
    When two tones are played simultaneously a listener can sometimes perceive an additional tone whose frequency is a sum or difference of the two frequencies.Also called a “Combination Tone
  183. Tectorial membrane…
    Effectively hinged at one side so that when the Basilar Membrane moves up and down a shearing motion is created between the Basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane. As a result, the stereocilia at the tops of the hair cells are displaced.
  184. Temporal integration
    How chunks of information is linked together in the brain.
  185. Temporal Modulation Transfer Function
    The modulation depth required for detection of sinusoidal modulation of a carrier plotted as a function of modulation frequency.
  186. Temporary Threshold Shift
    temporary loss of hearing after exposure to sound.
  187. Timbre
    • … is that attribute of auditory senesation in terms of which a listener
    • can judge that two sounds similarly presented and having the same
    • loudness and pitch are dissimilar. Put more simply it relates to the quality of a sound.
  188. Time-
    intensity tradeoff
  189. Tonotopic organization
    • Helmholtz believed that the pillar cells of the cochlea generated a
    • tonotopic representation of frequency with the high frequencies
    • represented in the base (closest to the oval window) and the low
    • frequencies represented in the apex (farthest from the oval window and
    • close to the helicotrema).
  190. Tourette’s Syndrome
    Undesired release of inhibition
  191. TRACE
    • modelcomputer program for running perceptual simulations. These
    • simulations are predictions about how a human mind/brain processes
    • speech sounds and words as they are heard in real time.
  192. Traveling wave
    A disturbance (an oscillation) that travels through space and time accompanied by the transfer of energy.
  193. Tuning curve
    For a single nerve fiber this is a graph of the lowest sound level at which the fiber will respond
  194. Two-Tone Masking
    A narrow band of noise is placed midway between two masking tones of equal amplitude and the threshold for the noise signal is measured. Measured again after the two tones have moved farther apart in frequency. Measures critical Bandwidth.
  195. Vibrato
    • Many sounds produced by musical instruments or the human voice when
    • singing can be characterized as complex tones in which the fundamental
    • frequency undergoes quasi-periodic fluctuations.
  196. Voice-Onset
    TimeIt is defined as the length of time that passes between when a stop consonant is released and when voicingoicing the vibratione vocal folds the vocal folds
  197. Weber, Ernst
    A German physician who is considered one of the founders of experimental psychology. Weber's Law. His work upon the ear and upon cutaneous senses (pressure temperature) led to the introduction of the experimental method in psychology.
  198. Wernicke’s Area
    • Is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked since the late
    • nineteenth century to speech (the other is Broca's area). It is involved
    • in the understanding of written and spoken language.
  199. White Noise
    A noise with a spectrum level that does not vary as a function of frequency.
  200. Wightman, Fred
    Did experiments on sound localization. If luz asks us about this guy, I'm gonna be pissed. He's mentioned in one slide as a source... This dude wrote an article... big whoop
  201. Wundt, William
    German physician, psychologist, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as the “father of experimental psychology.” Founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig.
  202. Zwicker, Eberhard
    German acoustics scientist, co-wrote the standard work psychoacoustics (book). Developed a method for the computation of noise levels. Zwicker Tones:

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