Astronomy 204 Final
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What happened in 50 AD as far as rockets?
Hero of Alexandria developed devices with steam propulsion, stated by his book Pneumatica
When and where was the first rocket? What was it used for?
3rd Century BC, China, bamboo tubes filled with slatpeter, sulphur, and charcoal for cermovial fires in religious festivals
How were they used against the mongols?
1232; Fire arrows, battle of Kai-fung fu; Chinese developed military rockets
Who created the first rocket in US? When? How was it used?
Sir William Congreve, 1804, Congreve Rocket, used in the Revolutionary war
FAther of theoretical aeronautics; high school teacher; first to calculate escape velocity that would require a multi state liquid fuel rocket; designed wind tunnels, space stations, space suits, air locks, colonies in space
scientist and physics professor; 1926 launched first liquid fuel rocket; continued development into 30's; Goddard space center
"The Rocket into Interplanetary Space" 1929; teacher of von Braun
Werner Von Braun
greatest rocket engineer of 20th cen; Headed german rocket program in WW2 at Peenekmunde; Moved to US in operation paperclip; mastermind of US space program through lunar landings
first human in space in 1961 on Vostok 1
1959-1963; Sheppard, Grissom into space; 62 John glenn orbited Earth three times
- 62-66; 10 manned flights 65-66; extravehicular ectivity;14 day flight, relative work; fuel cells, navigation and flight controls; 66 G 8Armstrong and Scott emergency landing
- 66- G12 Buzz Aldrin 5hr eva
1966-75; 1968/ Apollo 8, launched early to beat soviets; 1969/ Apollo 11; 1970/ Apollo 13
Why were Apollo and Mars Programs cut short?
What was a gesture of international peace and end to space exploration?
Skylab in 1973
Manned vs probe exploration Arguments
advancement of science, advancement of technological development; advancement of industry, advancement of business opportunity, high ground, national pride, planetary insurance, new world, moral equivalet of war, overpopulation
Who named the canals and when?
Schiaparelli in 1877
Who was a major observer of Mars and created the crazy persona of Mars?
1975; sent to observe Mars' surface and search for life; one did not make it to surface
launched between 1963 to 73; total of 10, three were lost; sent to investigate Mars, Venus, and Mercury;
launched in 96, landed in 1997; consisted of a lander renamed after Carl Sagan and a rover named Sojourner; measured atmostpheric data
Other Mars landers/rovers
Opportunity and Spirit; Opportunity lives; Phoenix Lander in poles and found frozen h20; curiosity
What is a geostationary orbit? What uses are of it now and what uses in the future?
a satellite in orbit at Earth's equator; appears to be motionless and will stay in the same place in Earth's vision; used for weather and communication satelites; could be used
Three types of civilizations
- A Type I Civilization is one that has
- mastered all forms of terrestrial energy.
- In terms of territory, it takes responsibility for stewardship of all
- the Earth. In terms of exploration, it
- sends out probes beyond Earth to near space.
- A Type II Civilization accepts responsibility
- for stewardship of the Solar System. The
- human community has spread into space, mining the asteroids, living on space
- stations and several planetary surfaces.
- In terms of exploration, Type II civilizations are sending manned and
- unmanned probes beyond the solar system to nearby star systems.
- Type III Civilizations are interstellar in
- character, moving easily between star systems.
- Entire star systems are colonized in one movement. They are evolving into a Galactic Civilization. In terms of exploration, manned and unmanned
- probes are sent outside the Milky Way Galaxy.
3 broad areas of technological advance that will determine the character of 21st century
•Computers Hardware and Software.
•Robotics, Artificial Intelligence,
- •Cyberspace, Virtual Reality, Artificial
Genetics and Bioengineering
- •Reproductive technologies, organ transplants,
- human organs grown in animals, artificial organs. Genetic markers for defects and
- •New forms of plant and animal life designed
- for the needs of humans.
- •Re-engineered humans developed to suit
- particular environments. Bio-designed
- specialization of humans for specific needs.
- •Fully exploited opportunities of Low Earth
- Orbit for Earth (environmental) needs.
•Lunar Development, scientific primarily.
- •Mars Colonization, major (500 year)
•Mining the Asteroids
- •Exploration and development of the outer
- solar system.
- how many civilizations exist in the galaxy with whom we could communicate with? Numer of civilizations =
- Nhp*flife*f civ* f now
How many could we make contact with?
Pessimistic 10s; optimistic 1000s
- 1. we are unique, the first part of universe to attain self aweareness
- 2. we will never explore the stars because it is impossible or we will destroy ourselves
- 3. we are the galaxy's rookies
What does it take for a statement to be scientifically meaningful?
a statement must be testable and rendered false
What were the two monuments in Chaco Canyon that were acheoastronomy?
Super Nova Petrograph (positive), Fajada Butte
Whould it make sense to send a rocket to Aristotle's universe?
No because his universe was everything.
when was the fist heliocentric model first proposed? was it accepted or discarded and why?
Aristarchus in ancient Greece and was discarded because of the lack of parallax to prove his theory
founder of greek science; proposed model of universe withouth mythology; basic nature of all things is water
student of thales; earth floats in empty space surrounded by celstial sphere
first to teach that earh is a sphere
astronomical motions must therefore be perfect; circular spheres
first system of planetary motions explained by embedding the planets in rotating spheres
his theory dominated western europe because of Alexander the great
first to state a helio centric; when the half moon was present it formed a right triangle and the ratios could be used in trigonometry
measured circumfrance of earth by finding constellations at different parts of the sky in different citites
similar to current current but with fixed stars, no prime mover
senstive data and had lots of money and geocentric model; KEPLAR
laws: planets rotate in ellipse
moon has craters and landscape, venus had phases, jupiter has four moons, milky way has thousands of stars, satrun has handles, sun has dark spots
nebulae, double stars, found urunus while looking for nebulae, star counts, movement of stars around solar system; shape of milky way
Shapley curtis debate
1920- dimensions of the milkey way, nature of spiral nebulae, expansion of universe (stativ vs expanding, accelerating?) shapley won
meansured andromeda galaxy
hubble used cepheid variables as standard candles
the detection of an ecoplanet through careful measurement of the motion of the star agains the backgroud star is known as
if an object in space is in the neighborhood of our moon we can measure its distance from us using
if an object in space is 5 lightyears away we can measure its distance from us using
parallax or transit
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